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Questions tagged [source-criticism]

Analysis for the purpose of dividing a text into its composite sources.

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What is the origin of 2 Peter 2:4 and Jude 1:6?

2 Peter 2:4 KJV — For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; Jude 1:6 KJV — And the angels ...
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Are fundamental Christian doctrines taken from the Book of Enoch?

Many fundamental Christian ideas are found in the Book of Enoch, and particularly in the second part, the book of Parables. There are similarities, but these are perhaps the most pressing. Examples: ...
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78 views

Should we take up our cross daily or not?

In Luke 9:23 in the HCSB Jesus is quoted saying "If anyone wants to come with Me, he must deny himself, take up his cross daily and follow Me." In the parallel passages in Mark 8, and Matthew 16 ...
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474 views

How did Matthew and Luke get different prices for sparrow?

I got the idea for this question from: Have any biblical scholars investigated the question of why Luke was getting a better price on his sparrows than Matthew?—@browserdotsys on Twitter The ...
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3answers
332 views

Why Hebrew in Acts 21:37-40

Why Did Paul use Hebrew in Acts 21:37-40? Does His use of Hebrew in this passage indicate or prove that Jesus taught in Aramaic or Hebrew and that the gospels only contain the voice of Jesus and not ...
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1answer
63 views

Is there an extant source for Jerome's version of Ecclesiasticus 24:25?

Vulgate Ecclesiaticus (חכמת ישוע בן סירא/Σοφία Ἰησοῦ ϒἱοῦ Σιράχ/Sirach) 24:1-30 reads as follows (for the sake of the reader, and of the question, the Douay-Rheims-Challoner translation thereof will ...
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1answer
83 views

Did John make use of a 'Signs Source'?

I have read that some source-critics have suggested the Fourth Gospel, 'John', consisted of at least three sources, with the primary one being a 'Signs Source'. As I understand it, the Signs Source is ...
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206 views

Revelation source criticism

In Revelation, the book can be divided into two or three parts with different genres: Chapter 1 - Prologue Chapter 2 to 3 - Epistles Remainder - Apocalyptic Prophecy Do any scholars posit that the ...
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1answer
153 views

Did Luke have a priestly source?

Luke begins with several events that take place at the Temple: Angel appearing to Zechariah in the Holy Place [Luke 1:5-25] - Jesus' circumcision [Luke 2:21] The presentation in the Temple [...
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1answer
440 views

What is Isaiah 24-27, and when was it written?

The view that the book of Isaiah, as we have it, came from multiple authors has wide support across the spectrum of scholars. Most often, Isaiah is divided into at least three sections: proto-Isaiah (...
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2answers
420 views

Is there a literary dependence of 2 Peter upon the Revelation?

This is a mild suspicion I've held for a while, and on occasion I will attempt a search to see if any scholars have expressed the view, but so far I have found nothing other than generic bible verse ...
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745 views

Does Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 3:24 Describe Events Which Took Place on the Same Day?

There are several questions on this site concerning the differences between the account of creation in Genesis 1 and Genesis 2 and some related topics. A few: Differences in Genesis creation stories **...
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Are the two creation accounts in Genesis 1 and 2 likely to be from different sources? If so what sources?

Are the two creation accounts in Genesis 1 and 2 likely to be from different sources? If so, what sources? What are some arguments for this?
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3answers
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Why is Moses referred to in the third person in Pentateuch, according to conservative commentators?

Since Moses is regarded as the author of the Pentateuch, it seems odd that he is so often referred to in the third person, which naturally gives the impression that Moses is not narrating. This ...
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2answers
3k views

Why do Isaiah 37 and 2 Kings 19 contain the same verses?

If you read Isaiah 37 and compare it with 2 Kings 19, you will notice that these verses are the exact same. How is it possible or why is it that these verses are identical? Isaiah 37: https://www....
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1answer
469 views

What are the common solutions to the minor agreements of Matthew and Luke?

There are a number of points where Matthew and Luke agree against Mark in their reading, but which cannot be explained by their supposed reliance on the Q source. For instance, in the narrative of ...
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1answer
290 views

Is Romans 3:24-26 original to Paul?

Romans 3:23-26 (NA28, ESV): πάντες γὰρ ἥμαρτον καὶ ὑστεροῦνται τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι διὰ τῆς ...
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4answers
911 views

Could the Gospel of Matthew be dependent on Luke's Gospel?

Why is it that a possible Gospel dependency order of Mark-Luke-Matthew without requiring 'Q' is considered particularly unlikely, when compared to other possible solutions to the synoptic problem? Do ...
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1answer
675 views

Does the acrostic structure of Lamentations indicate a composition from 5 separate psalms?

It's not noticeable in many English translations, but Lamentations makes heavy use of the acrostic technique of Hebrew poetry. As a note in the NET Bible mentions: Chapters 1-4 are arranged in ...
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1answer
268 views

Why should we think the Q source was an earlier source than Mark?

While I buy the evidence for Q based on parallels in Matthew and Luke that don't use Mark as a source, I find it curious that Q is often thought to be earlier than Mark. Is there evidence for this? ...
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3answers
780 views

What is the internal evidence that Peter provided source material for Mark's gospel?

I am aware that there are a number of early church fathers who made this connection (e.g. see Eusebius and others including Irenaeus, Justin, Clement, Origen, and more cited in this blog post). Is ...
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What evidence supports Matthew as Paul's source?

There is a noteworthy scholarly position that Matthew was the first Gospel written. As such, it may have even been the first New Testament book written. If this is correct, it is likely that Matthew ...
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2answers
559 views

Which is considered more reliable about Jesus' words, Mark or Q? [closed]

The general scholarly consensus is that the gospels of Matthew and Luke used the gospel of Mark as one of their sources. But Matthew and Luke also share content that is not in Mark, so it's believed ...
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What is the significance of the author of Genesis using two different designations for God?

In Genesis 4:25; 6:3,6-8, 9-22; 7:1, 9, 16a/b; 8:1-19, 20-22, we see the author using two designations for God, “Yahweh”, and “Elohim”. What is the significance, if any, of the author bouncing back ...
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Which was copied from which: 2 Peter 2 or Jude?

There are many strong similarities in word choice, style, theme, and structure between Jude and 2 Peter 2. For instance: Jude 6  And  the  angels  who  did  not  keep  ...
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1answer
166 views

Was the books of Kings the source of the Chronicles, or vice versa?

1Ki 12:1 And Rehoboam went to Shechem, for all Israel had gone to Shechem to make him king. 2 Chr 10:1 And Rehoboam went to Shechem, for all Israel had gone to Shechem to make him king. 1Ki 12:2 So ...
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1answer
431 views

Was the LXX ending to Job written in Greek?

The Septuagint's ending to Job begins: And it is written that he shall rise again with the ones whom the Lord shall raise up. This man is described by the Syriac book as dwelling in the land of Uz ...
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1answer
214 views

What signs does Q show of stages of composition?

Regarding the Jesus Seminar, N.T. Wright writes in Jesus and the Victory of God: Great reliance has been placed on the work of John Kloppenborg, who has painstakingly analysed the Q material into ...
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2answers
174 views

What is the relationship between the Synoptics and the Gospel of Thomas?

I know the Jesus Seminar held that Q and the Gospel of Thomas were prior in composition to the writing of the Synoptics. Is this still a dominant view among scholars (as far as Thomas)? What can be ...
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1answer
798 views

Literary independence of the synoptics

Which scholars, historical figures, or churches have argued that the synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) were all written independently without access to any of the other gospels? What ...
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1answer
320 views

How should Sirach 3:17 be translated?

Here are four alternate translations for Sirach (Ecclesiasticus / Wisdom of Joshua Ben Sira) 3:17 -- My son, perform your tasks in meekness; then you will be loved by those whom God accepts (...
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Who led the people of Israel out of Egypt in Jude 5?

Lest anyone think this is a "stump the chumps" question, I am specifically interested in support for a particular reading of this text. It is disputed which manuscript should be followed in Jude 5. ...
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3answers
6k views

Why are 2 Peter and Jude usually together in commentaries?

It seems pretty standard for commentaries to be written on the combination of 2 Peter and Jude. Obviously they both share the subject matter of false teachers, but I assume there are reasons beyond ...
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1answer
710 views

Does archaeological evidence contradict the Documentary Hypothesis?

In an interview, the late Dr. Clifford Wilson implied that archaeology has shown that the Pentateuch could not have been compiled the way that the JEDP theory suggests: Professor G. Ernest Wright, ...
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1answer
2k views

Did someone really name their son Fool?

In 1st Samuel 25, we read about Abigail's first husband, who is named Nabal. Near the end of the story, she pleads with David to save his life: My lord should not pay attention to this wicked man ...
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1answer
452 views

What led to the division of Ezra-Nehemiah?

Modern consensus is that the books of Ezra and Nehemiah actually comprise a single work which was subsequently divided into two. How is it that scholars realized this was the same book (Does it have ...
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4answers
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Was the Beloved Disciple the author of the Fourth Gospel?

One very common interpretation of the Gospel of John is that the Beloved Disciple was the author of the book. (Presumably, he was interested in obscuring his identity for some reason.) But other ...
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379 views

Does the Shibboleth story help us date the book of Judges?

This story has always fascinated me: Judges 12:4-6 (ESV) 4 Then Jephthah gathered all the men of Gilead and fought with Ephraim. And the men of Gilead struck Ephraim, because they said, “You are ...
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When was the book of Joel written?

The word of the LORD that came to Joel the son of Pethuel. Hear this, ye old men, and give ear, all ye inhabitants of the land. Hath this been in your days, or in the days of your fathers? Tell ye ...
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1answer
516 views

Can we date Mark without first committing to an interpretation of the Olivet Discourse?

Most scholars believe Mark is the earliest biography of Jesus. (Paul's writings and perhaps one or two other New Testament letters are earlier, but they include very little biographical material ...
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2answers
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Why does Jesus include “persecutions” in the list of things received by his followers?

Shortly after Jesus' interaction with the rich young man: Peter began to say to him, “See, we have left everything and followed you.” Jesus said, “Truly, I say to you, there is no one who has left ...
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When did Jonah compose his prayer in chapter 2?

Almost the entity of Jonah, chapter 2 is a prayer to God: Jonah prayed to the Lord his God from the belly of the fish. He said: In my trouble I called to the Lord, And He answered me; From ...
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8answers
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Who named the wrong priest in Mark 2:26?

Here's a story Jesus told about David according to Mark 2:23-28 (ESV): One Sabbath he was going through the grainfields, and as they made their way, his disciples began to pluck heads of grain. And ...
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2answers
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Who wrote the hymn in Philippians 2?

Wikipedia claims, "It is possible that the kenosis passage in Philippians 2:5-11 may have been a Christian hymn that Paul quoted." If Paul is possibly not the author of this hymn, is there any ...