Questions tagged [septuagint]

The Koine Greek translation of the Jewish Scriptures; often abbreviated "LXX".

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In Psalm 18:24, Does Cleanliness of χειρῶν “Hands” merit righteousness?

Why does LXX version of Psalm 18:24 use the word “χειρῶν” [worse] instead of “χεῖρας“ [hands] like Job 17:9, when translating יָ֝דַ֗י yaday from Tehillim 18:25? [Tehillim 18:25, MT] “and YHVH has ...
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In Psalm 2:9 is the verb תְּ֭רֹעֵם from the root רָעָה shepherd or רָעַע break?

In Psalm 2:9 is the verb תְּ֭רֹעֵם from the root רָעָה shepherd or רָעַע break? תְּ֭רֹעֵם has multiple homonyms, three based on the root רָעָה and two off the root רָעַע. Two of these five make sense,...
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Amos 7:1 Septuagint

Why does only the Septuagint mention a swarm of locusts coming from the east? and, the one caterpillar, king Gog?
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Rabbinic changes in the Septuagint - facts or fables?

The Talmud in Megillah.9a describes the process of the translation of the OT to Greek, aka the Septuagint. It lists a number of changes that the Jewish sages deliberately implemented in the Septuagint ...
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Leviticus 18:21 in LXX different?

In Leviticus 18:21 in the LXX it reads.. "And thou shalt not give of thy seed to serve a ruler; and thou shalt not profane my holy name; I the Lord" ... which is different from the ...
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Was "ὅστις" in Revelation 1:7 meant to be singular, since John 19:34 says only one of the soldiers pierced Ἰησοῦς?

Revelation 1:7 uses the pronoun "ὅστις" : [Revelation 1:7, KJV] "Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the ...
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Why does the Septuagint translated Psalm 99:1 with the optative?

Why did the writers of the Septuagint (LXX) choose the particular word for wrath and use the optative mood for that word (ὀργιζέσθωσαν) normally translated "angry/rage/wrath" in Psalm 99:1 - ...
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Amos 6:3 Sabbath or Seat?

Amos 6:3 has a different reading between the Masoretic Text (MT) and Septuagint (LXX). Seat; Ye that put far away the evil day, and cause the seat of violence to come near; (Amos 6:3 - KJV) (Read KJV)...
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Reconciling differences between 1 Kings 6:1 of Hebrew Bible and Septuagint

1 Kings 6:1 Hebrew bible: In the four hundred and eightieth year after the Israelites came out of Egypt, The footnote says that the Septuagint says: In the four hundred and fortieth year How do you ...
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Zechariah’s vision: one or two donkeys?

Jesus Enters Jerusalem - Gustave Doré 1832-1883 Triumphal Entry of the Messiah in Jerusalem This is Zachariah’s famous vision/prophecy: Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion! Shout, daughter of Jerusalem!...
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Why does the Septuagint remove "Amen" from Nehemiah 8:6?

Truly Truly the Greek Septuagint forgot an αμην "Amen"? - In the Hebrew Tanakh the phrase "Truly Truly" can be found in [Nehemiah 8:6]. Nehemiah 8:6 "And Ezra blessed YHVH, ...
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Why does Proverb 22:20 say "thirty sayings" in some translations and "excellent things" in others?

I'm not sure if this question has a simple answer or not since I don't read any Hebrew, but when I was reading through Proverbs 22 this morning with my wife, her translation at verse 20 said Have I ...
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Why are the Hebrew and Greek of Job 22:21 so different?

In Hebrew (and most modern translations), Job 22:21 reads: הַסְכֶּן־נָא עִמּוֹ וּשְׁלם בָּהֶם תְּֽבוֹאַתְךָ טוֹבָֽה׃ Agree with God, and be at peace; thereby good will come to you. (ESV) The Vulgate ...
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What are the *theologically significant* differences between MT and DSS?

Rather than a comprehensive list of every difference between MT and DSS (or MT and LXX), I'm interested in scholarly assessments of differences that are deemed theologically significant or seem to be ...
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What is the significance of the selective use of εἰμι in expressions of self identification in LXX-Genesis?

In his commentary of Exodus, Dennis Prager makes this statement: Hebrew does not have a word for the present tense of the verb "to be." In other words, there is no Hebrew word for "am&...
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Rock or no Rock?

There are many places in the Hebrew OT that refer to YHWH/God as "The Rock"; for example: Deut 32:4 - "The Rock! His work is perfect, For all His ways are just; A God of faithfulness ...
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In 2 Kings 17:11 LXX, what are "κοινωνοὺς καὶ ἐχάραξαν"?

The YLT, based on the Hebrew has: 2 Kings 17:11 YLT(i) 11 and make perfume there in all high places, like the nations that Jehovah removed from their presence, and do evil things to provoke Jehovah, ...
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Does the LXX's Adonai, Lord, Eloai, Sabaoth mean Adonai was understood as the proper form of address for יהוה צבאות?

When Hannah asks for a son, she calls upon the LORD of Hosts: And she vowed a vow and said, “O LORD of hosts, if you will indeed look on the affliction of your servant and remember me and not forget ...
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Did the Greek Septuagint ignore the Hebrew name change of Mikayehu מִיכָֽיְהוּ to Mikah מִיכָ֔ה in Judges 17:4-5?

Did the Greek Septuagint ignore the Hebrew name change of Mikayehu מִיכָֽיְהוּ to Mikah מִיכָ֔ה in Judges 17:4-5? When we read "Judges" / שֹֽׁפְטִ֑ים Shoftim 17:4-5 in the Tanakh, we notice ...
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How should עֹ֥ז be translated in Psalm 8:3?

Modern translations translate עֹ֥ז as strength. Out of the mouth of babies and infants, you have established strength because of your foes, to still the enemy and the avenger. (Psalm 8:2, ESV) ...
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Literal translation of Hosea 13:14?

In the septuagint, Hosea 13:14 has ἐκ χειρὸς ᾅδου ῥύσομαι αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐκ θανάτου λυτρώσομαι αὐτούς ποῦ ἡ δίκη σου θάνατε ποῦ τὸ κέντρον σου ᾅδη παράκλησις κέκρυπται ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν μου So we would have ...
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Deuteronomy 12:5 LXX - Verb Form in Greek

I've been exploring this verb in Deuteronomy 12:5 about the location of the place that God chooses for worship and sacrifice. In the MT, this points to the future יבחר (will choose, imperfect tense), ...
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Was God's sign in His covenant with Noah something other than a rainbow?

13 I have set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 When I bring clouds over the earth and the bow is seen in the clouds, 15 I will remember my ...
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Why was the Hebrew "possessed" translated into Greek as "created" in Proverbs 8:22?

Why was the Hebrew "possessed" translated into Greek as "created" in Proverbs 8:22? Proverbs 8:22 English Standard Version “The LORD possessed me (קָ֭נָנִי) at the beginning of ...
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The Menorah - A Shammash?

Exodus 25:31-37 (KJV) 31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of ...
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How might Amos 4:13 LXX come to speak of Christ?

The Hebrew of Amos 4:13 does not mention Christ: [Amo 4:13 NLT] (13) For the LORD is the one who shaped the mountains, stirs up the winds, and reveals his thoughts to mankind. He turns the light of ...
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Did the Early Church potentially use corrupted Septuagint or Masoretic Texts?

For the most part the Masoretic Text (MT) aligns with the Dead Sea Scroll (DSS) from the Essene community and the Greek translation Septuagint (LXX) which was compiled from older copies of an older ...
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In Ephesians 2:12, Ephesians 4:18 and Colossians 1:21 what does Paul mean by ἀπαλλοτριόομαι?

Eph 2:12 NLT - In those days you were living apart from Christ. You were excluded (ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι) from citizenship among the people of Israel, and you did not know the covenant promises God had made ...
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Psalm 22:1 - Masoretic and Septuagint

The septuagint appears to read differently from the Masoretic text in Psalm 22:1 and I wondered why this might be ? אֵלִ֣י אֵ֭לִי לָמָ֣ה עֲזַבְתָּ֑נִי רָחֹ֥וק מִֽ֝ישׁוּעָתִ֗י דִּבְרֵ֥י ...
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What does the clause ἐκ πίστεώς μου add to Habakkuk 2:4 LXX?

The NT leans very heavily on Habakkuk 2:4 and it is clear that it is not looking at the Hebrew, which reads like this: [Rom 1:17 NKJV] (17) For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith ...
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What does the article signify in the Greek translation of Genesis 1:1?

The beginning of the Bible states: In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1:1 ESV) בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָֽרֶץ In the beginning God made the ...
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Where can I find a free LXX/English interlinear? [closed]

I'm looking for an interlinear Greek English Septuagint Old Testament. Is there a free one?
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Why is the word "disciple" rarely used by anyone except Jesus?

Luke 14:26 "If anyone comes to me and does not hate father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters--yes, even their own life--such a person cannot be my disciple [μαθητής]. Why is the ...
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What meaning does the verb ἐτελέσθησαν have in Psalms 105:28 LXX (106:28 KJV)?

καὶ ἐτελέσθησαν τῷ Βεελφεγωρ καὶ ἔφαγον θυσίας νεκρῶν I reviewed the Hebrew word צָמַד (tzamad), and it seems to mean “join” or “fasten.” When I reviewed LSJ’s entry on τελέω (τέλω), I didn’t see any ...
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Are the birds formed from the sea? (Gen 1:20)

According to the Jewish Publication Society (JPS) and the Lexham English Septuagint (LES), birds and such seem to be formed from the waters: God said, "Let the waters bring forth swarms of ...
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LXX Job 39:20 "snort" vs "breast"

How did the translators of the LXX out of the Hebrew text of Job 39:20 decide to use the word "breast" where the Hebrew text (Stuttgarsenia) has the Hebrew word "snort" (Brown Driver Briggs 637b)?
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Does Mark 13:14 allude to the Hebrew or to the Greek of Daniel 9:27?

Daniel 9:27 reads differently in the Hebrew and in the Greek and Mark's saying is not an exact match to either version. Is Jesus, in Mark 13:14, referring to what appears in the Hebrew or the Greek OT?...
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What does Gen 4:7 mean in the Septuagint?

Most of the translations of Gen 4:7 read something like (LEB): If you do well will I not accept you? But if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door. And its desire is for you, ...
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Why is 1 Kings 22:47-50 missing in the LXX?

1 Kings 22:47-50 which describes the death of Jehoshaphat is missing in the LXX. What could be the reason for having left out these verses? 1 Kings 22:47 ~ There was then no king in Edom; a ...
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Does the LXX translate חוללתי as γεννάω to create an allusion to Genesis 4?

In various places Proverbs personifies Wisdom as a woman. In one she deviates from teaching to speak about herself. She starts by announcing her "קָנָה" at the beginning: 22 “The Lord possessed me ...
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Why is Genesis 2:18 "Let us make.." in the LXX?

Recently I noticed that Genesis 2:18 in the LXX uses plural and not singular like TM. Where the TM says "I will make....", the LXX says "let us make..." Can someone tell me what version are true and ...
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Since the LXX says Wisdom was created at Proverbs 8:22 but begotten at 8:25, does this disprove "begotten not made?"

At Proverbs 8:22 in the LXX the speaker is created with the Greek κτίζω but in verse 25 he is begotten with γεννά με. This speaks of the same event. According to advanced Hebrew lexicons like BDB ...
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Why does the KJV say "people perish" in Pr. 29:18?

Can anyone tell me why the KJV translates the Hebrew words yipara am as “people perish” in Pr. 29:18? (The Hebrew word am means people and yipara means unrestrained.) Other translations render yipara ...
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Reading the oldest version of the Septuagint

Will you direct me to the oldest version online or in any library of the Septuagint bible? In your opinion for some of the ones we have available today, are they accurate in bible study?
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Psalm 96 (95) Why does the LXX translate אלילים as δαιμόνια?

Psalm 96 (95) v. 5 (Westminister Leningrad Codex) כִּ֤י ׀ כָּל־אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָעַמִּ֣ים אֱלִילִ֑ים וַֽ֝יהוָ֗ה שָׁמַ֥יִם עָשָֽׂה׃ (LXX) ὅτι πάντες οἱ θεοὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν δαιμόνια, ὁ δὲ κύριος τοὺς ...
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In the Shema, how should we understand "with all your strength" when the Hebrew word מְאֹ֑ד is rarely used this way?

In Deuteronomy 6:5, the Hebrew text reads "and with all your might"(ESV). Most English translations take this as "strength" or "might." The LXX uses a common word for power/strength/might and Mark's ...
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In Isaiah 1:3 LXX, what is "τὸν κτησάμενον"?

The word is not found in BDAG because it is only used in the OT, not in the NT.However, this is what the other Lexicons have: https://logeion.uchicago.edu/κτάομαι [Isa 1:3 LXX] (3) ἔγνω βοῦς τὸν ...
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Why did St. Jerome use "virago" in Gen. 2:23?

Why did St. Jerome use virago ("a man-like woman") to translate אשה in Gen. 2:23, when the LXX uses γυνή (woman)? And Adam said: This now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be ...
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In the Lamentations 4:21-22 (LXX), what is the significance of using Ιδουμαίας and then Εδωμ to identify the daughter of Edom?

In Lamentations, the phrase "daughter of Edom" is repeated in consecutive verses: Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, you who dwell in the land of Uz; but to you also the cup shall ...
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How were Paleo-Hebrew words in the Greek Septuagint fragments treated?

In certain old fragments of the Greek Septuagint the name of YHWH alone is written in paleo-Hebrew letters. I’m a novice at Greek, but isn’t it necessary for all proper nouns and names to be written ...