Questions tagged [septuagint]

The Koine Greek translation of the Jewish Scriptures; often abbreviated "LXX".

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Congregation or congregrations? מקוה in Genesis 1:10

Genesis 1:10 ויקרא אלהים ליבשה ארץ ולמקוה המים קרא ימים וירא אלהים כי טוב Vulgate: Et vocavit Deus aridam Terram, congregationesque aquarum appellavit Maria. Et vidit Deus quod esset bonum. LXX: καὶ ...
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Does anyone know if there is a complete translation table from the Masoretic numbering to the Greek numbering of the Psalms available somewhere?

I asked myself this question today and could not find anything. I have thus decided to answer my own question here. The basic translation table (found e.g. in Wikipedia) is the following: Hebrew ...
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Christian authorship of books of the Septuagint

I am currently in discussion with a Muslim who appears to be arguing for Christian authorship of books of the Septuagint, who he argues have tampered with the text through mistranslation. These books ...
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Does γέγονεν in John 1:15 indicate that Jesus had a beginning? [duplicate]

John 1:15 (NASB95) John testified about Him and cried out, saying, “This was He of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me has a higher rank than I, for He existed before me.’“ Most translations choose ...
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How can we trust the Hebrew Bible to be accurate when the oldest MSS go back only to about the tenth century C.E.?

The oldest complete MSS of the Hebrew Bible is from about the tenth century C.E.? We have portions of manuscripts from the years between 200 B.C.E. and 200 C.E.(the Dead Sea scrolls) but nothing like ...
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Psalm 16:2 first person or second person

Some translations render “said” in Psalm 16:2 as first person singular, while others choose second person singular. Which of these two translations has a stronger textual basis? From what I can see, ...
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Has anyone reconstructed the LXX version of Job 2:9 in Hebrew?

I know the Masoretic version of this verse is considerably shorter. But has anyone tried recreating the underlying Hebrew text from which the LXX version of Job 2:9 was translated? MT of Job 2:9 - ...
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Does the Septuagint of Isaiah throw light on Romans chapter 9 about the Gentiles coming to see God's glory?

This related Q, What does "glory" of the Gentiles mean in Isaiah? deals with the word 'glory' which I'm not asking about. This other related Q, In Ezekiel 10:4, Why does Ezekiel see a Cloud ...
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Why do [1 Peter 2:8 | Romans 9:33] misquote the Greek LXX version of Isaiah 8:14?

Apostles Peter & Paul prefer a different version of [Isaiah 8:14] based on their revision of the Greek LXX. Referencing the Isaiah 8:14 as documented in Septuagint, we read : “καὶ ἐὰν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ ...
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Why does the apostle Peter misquote Isaiah 28:16 in [1 Peter 2:6]?

If the Greek LXX version of Isaiah 28 was studied by Peter, Why does the apostle Peter misquote Isaiah 28:16 in [1 Peter 2:6]? [1 Peter 2:6, LXX] “Ἰδού, [τίθημι ἐν] Σιὼν λίθον [?] ἀκρογωνιαῖον ...
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Why did Textus Receptus add the word "Χριστοῦ" to [Revelation 12:17]?

Rome's persecution of specific Israelites who have "τὴν μαρτυρίαν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ" was poetically documented in [Revelation 12:17] - "And the dragon was enraged with the woman, and he went to ...
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How is "El-Shaddai" translated in the Septuagint?

The title "El-Shaddai" has been traditionally translated in English as "God Almighty", but this is increasingly disputed. However a way of understanding what the word meant ...
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Time of Israel's sojourning until the Exodus: Septuagint vs Hebrew Bible translations Exodus 12:40 [duplicate]

Many scholars have debated the 430 year period Israel sojourned in Egypt mentioned in Ex 12:40 and attempted to figure out how it is possible that Israel spent 430 years in Egypt while it is contrary ...
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Why does Deuteronomy 7:11 in [MT] show מִּצְוָה Mitsvah (s.) for "Commandments" (pl.), instead of Mitsvot , like "ἐντολὰς" [LXX]?

If the word "Commandments" (plural) was actually meant to be written in [Deuteronomy 7:11], why does the [MT] show the singular word מִּצְוָה versus the [LXX] plural word ἐντολὰς? [MT, ...
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If the LXX version of Judges 18:30 states "Μωυσῆ" (Moses), why would New Testament bibles prefer מְנַשֶּׁ֜ה (Menasseh) from Tanakh's MT?

Why would Tanakh's MT sometimes be preferred over Greek LXX as correct sources for New Testament bibles? - Example : Judges 18:30. [Judges 18:30, LXX] states : "καὶ ἀνέστησαν ἑαυτοῗς οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ ...
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Did Jesus establish in Matthew 4:4 that the later LXX editions add words to Deuteronomy 8:3?

Jesus teaches us in Matthew 4:4 what is written in Deuteronomy 8:3 LXX, but Jesus excludes two words (ὁ,τῷ) from his citation of Deuteronomy 8:3 LXX. [Matthew 4:4] Οὐκ ἐπ᾽ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ἄνθρωπος : ...
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If Luke 1:17 was quoting the LXX version of Malachi 4:6, Why was ἐπιστρέφω used for “to turn” instead of copying ἀποκαθίστημι?

Should historians think Luke’s author used an available copy of LXX to reference Malachi 4:6, if the LXX-Malachi uses the Greek word “ἀποκαθίστημι” instead of “ἐπιστρέφω” in Luke 1:17? [LXX Malachi 4:...
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In Psalm 18:24, Does Cleanliness of χειρῶν “Hands” merit righteousness?

Why does LXX version of Psalm 18:24 use the word “χειρῶν” [worse] instead of “χεῖρας“ [hands] like Job 17:9, when translating יָ֝דַ֗י yaday from Tehillim 18:25? [Tehillim 18:25, MT] “and YHVH has ...
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In Psalm 2:9 is the verb תְּ֭רֹעֵם from the root רָעָה shepherd or רָעַע break?

In Psalm 2:9 is the verb תְּ֭רֹעֵם from the root רָעָה shepherd or רָעַע break? תְּ֭רֹעֵם has multiple homonyms, three based on the root רָעָה and two off the root רָעַע. Two of these five make sense,...
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Amos 7:1 Septuagint

Why does only the Septuagint mention a swarm of locusts coming from the east? and, the one caterpillar, king Gog?
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Rabbinic changes in the Septuagint - facts or fables?

The Talmud in Megillah.9a describes the process of the translation of the OT to Greek, aka the Septuagint. It lists a number of changes that the Jewish sages deliberately implemented in the Septuagint ...
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Leviticus 18:21 in LXX different?

In Leviticus 18:21 in the LXX it reads.. "And thou shalt not give of thy seed to serve a ruler; and thou shalt not profane my holy name; I the Lord" ... which is different from the ...
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Was "ὅστις" in Revelation 1:7 meant to be singular, since John 19:34 says only one of the soldiers pierced Ἰησοῦς?

Revelation 1:7 uses the pronoun "ὅστις" : [Revelation 1:7, KJV] "Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the ...
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Why does the Septuagint translated Psalm 99:1 with the optative?

Why did the writers of the Septuagint (LXX) choose the particular word for wrath and use the optative mood for that word (ὀργιζέσθωσαν) normally translated "angry/rage/wrath" in Psalm 99:1 - ...
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Amos 6:3 Sabbath or Seat?

Amos 6:3 has a different reading between the Masoretic Text (MT) and Septuagint (LXX). Seat; Ye that put far away the evil day, and cause the seat of violence to come near; (Amos 6:3 - KJV) (Read KJV)...
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Reconciling differences between 1 Kings 6:1 of Hebrew Bible and Septuagint

1 Kings 6:1 Hebrew bible: In the four hundred and eightieth year after the Israelites came out of Egypt, The footnote says that the Septuagint says: In the four hundred and fortieth year How do you ...
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Zechariah’s vision: one or two donkeys?

Jesus Enters Jerusalem - Gustave Doré 1832-1883 Triumphal Entry of the Messiah in Jerusalem This is Zachariah’s famous vision/prophecy: Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion! Shout, daughter of Jerusalem!...
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Why does the Septuagint remove "Amen" from Nehemiah 8:6?

Truly Truly the Greek Septuagint forgot an αμην "Amen"? - In the Hebrew Tanakh the phrase "Truly Truly" can be found in [Nehemiah 8:6]. Nehemiah 8:6 "And Ezra blessed YHVH, ...
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Why does Proverb 22:20 say "thirty sayings" in some translations and "excellent things" in others?

I'm not sure if this question has a simple answer or not since I don't read any Hebrew, but when I was reading through Proverbs 22 this morning with my wife, her translation at verse 20 said Have I ...
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Why are the Hebrew and Greek of Job 22:21 so different?

In Hebrew (and most modern translations), Job 22:21 reads: הַסְכֶּן־נָא עִמּוֹ וּשְׁלם בָּהֶם תְּֽבוֹאַתְךָ טוֹבָֽה׃ Agree with God, and be at peace; thereby good will come to you. (ESV) The Vulgate ...
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What are the *theologically significant* differences between MT and DSS?

Rather than a comprehensive list of every difference between MT and DSS (or MT and LXX), I'm interested in scholarly assessments of differences that are deemed theologically significant or seem to be ...
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What is the significance of the selective use of εἰμι in expressions of self identification in LXX-Genesis?

In his commentary of Exodus, Dennis Prager makes this statement: Hebrew does not have a word for the present tense of the verb "to be." In other words, there is no Hebrew word for "am&...
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Rock or no Rock?

There are many places in the Hebrew OT that refer to YHWH/God as "The Rock"; for example: Deut 32:4 - "The Rock! His work is perfect, For all His ways are just; A God of faithfulness ...
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In 2 Kings 17:11 LXX, what are "κοινωνοὺς καὶ ἐχάραξαν"?

The YLT, based on the Hebrew has: 2 Kings 17:11 YLT(i) 11 and make perfume there in all high places, like the nations that Jehovah removed from their presence, and do evil things to provoke Jehovah, ...
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Does the LXX's Adonai, Lord, Eloai, Sabaoth mean Adonai was understood as the proper form of address for יהוה צבאות?

When Hannah asks for a son, she calls upon the LORD of Hosts: And she vowed a vow and said, “O LORD of hosts, if you will indeed look on the affliction of your servant and remember me and not forget ...
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Did the Greek Septuagint ignore the Hebrew name change of Mikayehu מִיכָֽיְהוּ to Mikah מִיכָ֔ה in Judges 17:4-5?

Did the Greek Septuagint ignore the Hebrew name change of Mikayehu מִיכָֽיְהוּ to Mikah מִיכָ֔ה in Judges 17:4-5? When we read "Judges" / שֹֽׁפְטִ֑ים Shoftim 17:4-5 in the Tanakh, we notice ...
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How should עֹ֥ז be translated in Psalm 8:3?

Modern translations translate עֹ֥ז as strength. Out of the mouth of babies and infants, you have established strength because of your foes, to still the enemy and the avenger. (Psalm 8:2, ESV) ...
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Literal translation of Hosea 13:14?

In the septuagint, Hosea 13:14 has ἐκ χειρὸς ᾅδου ῥύσομαι αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐκ θανάτου λυτρώσομαι αὐτούς ποῦ ἡ δίκη σου θάνατε ποῦ τὸ κέντρον σου ᾅδη παράκλησις κέκρυπται ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν μου So we would have ...
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Deuteronomy 12:5 LXX - Verb Form in Greek

I've been exploring this verb in Deuteronomy 12:5 about the location of the place that God chooses for worship and sacrifice. In the MT, this points to the future יבחר (will choose, imperfect tense), ...
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Was God's sign in His covenant with Noah something other than a rainbow?

13 I have set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 When I bring clouds over the earth and the bow is seen in the clouds, 15 I will remember my ...
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Why was the Hebrew "possessed" translated into Greek as "created" in Proverbs 8:22?

Why was the Hebrew "possessed" translated into Greek as "created" in Proverbs 8:22? Proverbs 8:22 English Standard Version “The LORD possessed me (קָ֭נָנִי) at the beginning of ...
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The Menorah - A Shammash?

Exodus 25:31-37 (KJV) 31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of ...
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How might Amos 4:13 LXX come to speak of Christ?

The Hebrew of Amos 4:13 does not mention Christ: [Amo 4:13 NLT] (13) For the LORD is the one who shaped the mountains, stirs up the winds, and reveals his thoughts to mankind. He turns the light of ...
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Did the Early Church potentially use corrupted Septuagint or Masoretic Texts?

For the most part the Masoretic Text (MT) aligns with the Dead Sea Scroll (DSS) from the Essene community and the Greek translation Septuagint (LXX) which was compiled from older copies of an older ...
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In Ephesians 2:12, Ephesians 4:18 and Colossians 1:21 what does Paul mean by ἀπαλλοτριόομαι?

Eph 2:12 NLT - In those days you were living apart from Christ. You were excluded (ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι) from citizenship among the people of Israel, and you did not know the covenant promises God had made ...
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Psalm 22:1 - Masoretic and Septuagint

The septuagint appears to read differently from the Masoretic text in Psalm 22:1 and I wondered why this might be ? אֵלִ֣י אֵ֭לִי לָמָ֣ה עֲזַבְתָּ֑נִי רָחֹ֥וק מִֽ֝ישׁוּעָתִ֗י דִּבְרֵ֥י ...
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What does the clause ἐκ πίστεώς μου add to Habakkuk 2:4 LXX?

The NT leans very heavily on Habakkuk 2:4 and it is clear that it is not looking at the Hebrew, which reads like this: [Rom 1:17 NKJV] (17) For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith ...
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What does the article signify in the Greek translation of Genesis 1:1?

The beginning of the Bible states: In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1:1 ESV) בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָֽרֶץ In the beginning God made the ...
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Where can I find a free LXX/English interlinear? [closed]

I'm looking for an interlinear Greek English Septuagint Old Testament. Is there a free one?
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Why is the word "disciple" rarely used by anyone except Jesus?

Luke 14:26 "If anyone comes to me and does not hate father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters--yes, even their own life--such a person cannot be my disciple [μαθητής]. Why is the ...
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