Questions tagged [masoretic-text]

The fixed and textually authoritative written form of the Hebrew Scriptures. Also the basis of many Christian Old Testament translations.

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What is the meaning of the Hebrew word כארו as used in Psalm 22:17?

In the book "Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum : cum variis lectionibus" Kennicott, Benjamin, a comparison of manuscripts with the Masoretic text is given, of which more than 600. https://archive....
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The Book of the Jonah 1:17, 4:6 comparison of MT and LXX

The Septuagint LXX is the oldest known translation of the Old Testament into ancient Greek. It is generally believed that the formation of the Septuagint began in the 280s BC and in general ended in ...
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Which version of Ezekiel 37 is accurate?

I was comparing various passages in the KJV (translated from the Masoretic Text) with the Septuagint (LXX) to see what the differences would be. One of the passages that I used was from Ezekiel 37, ...
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Why is "גל" translated variously in Psalm 22:8?

The first part of Psalm 22:8 is translated variously between translations. Most translations render it as: “He trusted in the Lord..." (NKJV) Other translations render it: "Commit thyself ...
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Why מצא instead of נמצא in Genesis 2:20?

(Genesis 2:20, Masoretic) וַיִּקְרָ֨א הָֽאָדָ֜ם שֵׁמֹ֗ות לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּלְעֹ֣וף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וּלְכֹ֖ל חַיַּ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה וּלְאָדָ֕ם לֹֽא־מָצָ֥א עֵ֖זֶר כְּנֶגְדֹּֽו׃ (DRB) And Adam called all the ...
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Does anyone know if there is a complete translation table from the Masoretic numbering to the Greek numbering of the Psalms available somewhere?

I asked myself this question today and could not find anything. I have thus decided to answer my own question here. The basic translation table (found e.g. in Wikipedia) is the following: Hebrew ...
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Psalm 16:2 first person or second person

Some translations render “said” in Psalm 16:2 as first person singular, while others choose second person singular. Which of these two translations has a stronger textual basis? From what I can see, ...
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Why does Deuteronomy 7:11 in [MT] show מִּצְוָה Mitsvah (s.) for "Commandments" (pl.), instead of Mitsvot , like "ἐντολὰς" [LXX]?

If the word "Commandments" (plural) was actually meant to be written in [Deuteronomy 7:11], why does the [MT] show the singular word מִּצְוָה versus the [LXX] plural word ἐντολὰς? [MT, ...
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Zechariah 6:12 Branch, Denkha or Orient!

Zechariah 6:12 has at least three different readings, the branch, the sunrise, the east. Now first has the sunrise and the east been made known to me and I wounder what manuscript to follow here, what ...
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סוֹף פָּסוּק‎ Sof pasuq cantillation mark [closed]

What's the earliest evidence of the סוֹף פָּסוּק‎ [Sof pasuq] cantillation mark? Did I correctly identify the sof pasuq right of my yellow highlights (the two dots vertical dots that look like a colon ...
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What are the *theologically significant* differences between MT and DSS?

Rather than a comprehensive list of every difference between MT and DSS (or MT and LXX), I'm interested in scholarly assessments of differences that are deemed theologically significant or seem to be ...
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Should it read גִלְעָד or גַלְעֵד?

Genesis 31:47-48 reads as follows: וַיִּקְרָא-לוֹ לָבָן, יְגַר שָׂהֲדוּתָא; וְיַעֲקֹב, קָרָא לוֹ גַּלְעֵד. מח וַיֹּאמֶר לָבָן, הַגַּל הַזֶּה עֵד בֵּינִי וּבֵינְךָ הַיּוֹם; עַל-כֵּן קָרָא-שְׁמוֹ, ...
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Genesis 18:12 Origin of “Smooth Flesh” translation

Not a Hebrew scholar here but a Rabbi and I read our versions of Genesis 18:12 and I noticed a difference in wording. When Sarah laughed, his version rendered roughly “shall I have smooth skin” and ...
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Isa 63:9 - Afflicted or not afflicted?

The NASB is fairly typical of Isa 63:9 which says: In all their affliction He was afflicted ... This is a good representation of the Hebrew according to the MT. However, I note that only a few ...
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Did the Early Church potentially use corrupted Septuagint or Masoretic Texts?

For the most part the Masoretic Text (MT) aligns with the Dead Sea Scroll (DSS) from the Essene community and the Greek translation Septuagint (LXX) which was compiled from older copies of an older ...
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Psalm 22:1 - Masoretic and Septuagint

The septuagint appears to read differently from the Masoretic text in Psalm 22:1 and I wondered why this might be ? אֵלִ֣י אֵ֭לִי לָמָ֣ה עֲזַבְתָּ֑נִי רָחֹ֥וק מִֽ֝ישׁוּעָתִ֗י דִּבְרֵ֥י ...
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2 Kings 13:21 - וַיֵּלֶךְ - who went?

2 kings 13:21 וַיְהִי הֵם קֹבְרִים אִישׁ, וְהִנֵּה רָאוּ אֶת-הַגְּדוּד, וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אֶת-הָאִישׁ, בְּקֶבֶר אֱלִישָׁע; וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּגַּע הָאִישׁ, בְּעַצְמוֹת אֱלִישָׁע, וַיְחִי, וַיָּקָם עַל-...
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Why does the 1 Samuel 10:27 paragraph found in 4QSamª not appear in other texts?

I was reading 1 Samuel 10 in the New Living Translation and found that in the verse 27, there is the following paragraph: [Nahash, king of the Ammonites, had been grievously oppressing the people ...
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Why does the KJV say "people perish" in Pr. 29:18?

Can anyone tell me why the KJV translates the Hebrew words yipara am as “people perish” in Pr. 29:18? (The Hebrew word am means people and yipara means unrestrained.) Other translations render yipara ...
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What is the 'me' in "masoretic text me" in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16?

What is the 'me' in "masoretic text me" in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16? https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm+22%3A16&version=NIV
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KJV 47 scribes reasoning for translating from the MT & Textus Receptus over other translations?

I hope this question is allowed (hermeneutical approaches?). Is there any information regarding the reasoning of the scribes that translated the 1611 KJB why they chose one text over another? They ...
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MT "will strike" & LXX "will watch carefully" (Gen 3:15)?

I haven't seen this question asked at all in the threads I've searched, so this shouldn't be a duplicate. I've been looking for answers about God's curse over the serpent in Gen 3:15. The question I ...
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Can a joint meaning of 'word of death' be derived for Isaiah 9:7 / 9:8 on account of the different words used in the Greek LXX and Hebrew Texts?

I would like to see some answers as to the discrepancy between the Hebrew and the LXX Greek Text concerning the subject matter of what is read in verse 8 of the KJV, but in other translations it can ...
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ConjPerf vs ConjImperf vs ConsecImperf parsing

My question regards the parsing of verbs on the Biblehub website's interlinear Hebrew Bible. What do the ConjPerf/ConjImperf/ConsecImperf labels mean? Let me post an example of each, with the ...
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In partial sentence Numbers 16:1 what did Korach take?

Inspired by What does Cain say to Abel in Genesis 4:8?, at the beginning of Numbers 16, we have another incomplete sentence (all translations here): וַיִּקַּ֣ח קֹ֔רַח בֶּן־יִצְהָ֥ר בֶּן־קְהָ֖ת בֶּן־...
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Why does the BHS suggest היום for האישׁ in Jeremiah 20:16?

The Masoretic text of Jeremiah 20:16 reads: וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ הַהוּא כֶּֽעָרִים אֲשֶׁר־הָפַךְ יְהוָה וְלֹא נִחָם וְשָׁמַע זְעָקָה בַּבֹּקֶר וּתְרוּעָה בְּעֵת צָהֳרָֽיִם Translated as (JSB): Let ...
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Why does a segolate noun in Psalm 38:1[2] retain its segol with pronominal suffix?

The first column (right-to-left) is a list of segolate nouns. The second column shows that, when a pronoun is added to segolate noun, the vowel under the first letter of the root reverts to whatever ...
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The "Ten Commandments" enumeration compared to the Masoretic text [closed]

As noted in the popular modern Hebrew commentary on the Old Testament Da’at Miqra, which quotes one of the leading modern scholars of Old Testament textual criticism, Rabbi Mordechai Breuer, there is ...
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Were NT authors aware of differences between MT and LXX

Throughout the New Testament, authors often quoted or referenced the Septuagint (LXX) - a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, but there are several notable differences between the Hebrew text that ...
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Approximately how many manuscripts of the Old Testament are extant today?

When looking into this, the closest I got to an answer is that the Masoretes were great copyists, but that they also had a way of disposing of older manuscripts, through the process of burial, and ...
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What manuscript(s) does BHS get Joshua 21:36-37 from?

Note- This is not a duplicate of Is Joshua 21:36-37 authentic or an addition? because I am asking what the source of the hebrew of those two verses is, and for the BHS specifically. So for example,...
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Are there any published compendia of alleged distortions in the Masoretic Text?

From time to time the point is made that the Masoretes may have deliberately distorted some of their readings of the Hebrew in order to refute Christological interpretations of the Old Testament. A ...
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Are any unvocalized versions of the Masoretic Text available, online or otherwise?

I have been looking for some time for a version of the Hebrew Old Testament text that removes the vocalizations that were added in the Masorah. I would think that such a text would be more ...
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Summary of textual variations and history of Judges 6:12-16?

In Judges 6:12,14,16 we have the angel of the LORD appear to Gideon, but then he is just referred to by LORD, that is, just the tetragrammaton. 12 And the angel of the LORD[?] appeared to him and ...
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Should Genesis 8:10 read “he waited” or “he waited anxiously”?

In Genesis 8:10 the first word in the MT is ויחל. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) suggests emending to וייחל. Everyone seems to accept the BHS and translate this as "waited" just as if the ...
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The correct translation of Isaiah 24:23

In Isaiah 24:23 we have וְחָֽפְרָה הַלְּבָנָה וּבוֹשָׁ֖ה הַֽחַמָּ֑ה The moon shall blush and the sun ashamed where levanah = moon and chammah = sun. But the Septuagint gives καὶ τακήσεται ἡ ...
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What's behind the difference between the Greek and Hebrew of Exodus 21?

In Exodus 21:22-25, the consequences for hitting a pregnant woman are discussed. But the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint seem to differ. The MT refers to harm to the child, while the LXX refers to ...
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What is the meaning of the symbols that appear in the text of the Hebrew Bible?

What is the meaning/reason for the symbols at the end of various verses in the Hebrew Bible? For example, Song of Solomon 6:3: אֲנִ֤י לְדוֹדִי֙ וְדוֹדִ֣י לִ֔י הָרֹעֶ֖ה בַּשׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים׃ ס ...
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Can anyone explain this apparent discrepancy between the Greek and Hebrew versions of Isaiah 30:20-21?

Isaiah 30:21, as translated from the Masoretic text (Hebrew), has been used times to say that God can show us where we need to go. וְאָזְנֶ֙יךָ֙ תִּשְׁמַ֣עְנָה דָבָ֔ר מֵֽאַחֲרֶ֖יךָ לֵאמֹ֑ר זֶ֤ה ...
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When was the Hebrew Bible's exact text/spelling synchronized globally?

The Hebrew Bible is essentially identical in all Jewish communities, despite significant differences in spellings and wordings from the Septuagint or texts in the Dead Sea Scrolls, or even from quoted ...
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What did God put into the human heart according to the Hebrew text of Ecclesiastes 3:11?

The Masoretic Text of Ecclesiastes [= Qohelet/Kohelet] 3:11bα reads this way: גַּ֤ם אֶת־הָעֹלָם֙ נָתַ֣ן בְּלִבָּ֔ם gam ʾet-hāʿōlām nātan bəlibbāmᵃ Also he has put העלם in their heart ᵃ ...
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Obadiah v. 7: ‘bread’ or ‘those who eat your bread’?

In Obadiah’s vision of the fall of Edom (v. 7), it is written: All your allies have driven you to your border; those at peace with you have deceived you; they have prevailed against you; those who ...
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Why are there extra dots in Genesis 33:4?

I was reading Genesis 33 and noticed extra dots (i.e. not part of the niqqud that I understand) above the letters of “and he kissed him” in verse 4 (picture from archive.org's Biblia Hebraica): and ...
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How many times does the Hebrew word הֵילֵל (heilel) occur in the Masoretic text?

In Isa. 14:12, the Hebrew text according to BHS states, אֵ֛יךְ נָפַ֥לְתָּ מִשָּׁמַ֖יִם הֵילֵ֣ל בֶּן־שָׁ֑חַר נִגְדַּ֣עְתָּ לָאָ֔רֶץ חֹולֵ֖שׁ עַל־גֹּויִֽם Does the Hebrew word הֵילֵל occur elsewhere ...
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How are the 3 types of OT quotes in the NT distributed?

In the New Testament, there are 3 types of Old Testament quotes: from the Hebrew, from the Septuagint (Greek), and "spontaneous" (ie, not directly from either). My question is, can anyone kindly ...
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Proverbs: differences between the LXX and the MT

What is the origin of the differences in the order of some verses in the book of Proverbs between the LXX and the MT? Here are two examples:1 the verses 30:1—14 are after 24:22 and the verses 30:15—...
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What is the meaning of the "inverted nuns" (׆ ... ׆) around Numbers 10:35-36?

Numbers 10:35-36 (ESV) And whenever the ark set out, Moses said, “Arise, O Lord, and let your enemies be scattered, and let those who hate you flee before you.” And when it rested, he said, “Return,...
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How does the Septuagint differ from the Masoretic text for Isaiah 7:14? [duplicate]

The JPS (1917) reads: Therefore the L-rd Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. But the ESV reads: Therefore ...
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What does "Qr perpetuum" mean?

In the BDB entry for הוא http://biblehub.com/hebrew/1931.htm, the term "Qr perpetuum" appears, but I have no clue what it means. From logical deduction, I can conclude it means something like "from ...
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Was Job short-changed in the end?

The LXX and Masoretic Text (MT) disagree concerning the number of oxen and donkeys which Job once owned; however, both the LXX and MT are mathematically consistent in that Job received double from the ...
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