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Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Does 1 Peter 3:21 teach baptismal regeneration?

20Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. 21The like ...
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What is the textual evidence for 'of the sins' in Colossians 2:11?

Please Note : This is a question about the TR, not about the Westcott and Hort text or the Nestle Aland text. Stephens, Beza, Elzevir and Scrivener all include των αμαρτιων 'of the sins' in the text ...
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Meaning of “pc” in the Nestle-Aland critical apparatus (Revelation 5.10)

In Which translation for Revelation 5:10 is correct?, this answer gives a helpful explanation of which readings appear in which manuscripts. I don't doubt the author's correctness! But I am struggling ...
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Which translation for Revelation 5:10 is correct?

Some translations of this scripture use the pronoun "us" but other ones use the pronoun "them". The use actually changes what is going on prior to this scripture in terms of who is singing the new ...
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What does “oppositions of science falsely so called” mean?

1 Tim. 6:20(KJV) says, "O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called". What does "Oppositions of ...
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Why is the KJV version of Matthew 5:44 so much longer than other Bibles?

From my search the KJV includes the phrase, "do good to them that hate you" But that phrase doesn't seem to exist in the versions I typically use. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=...
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Why is there extra text in the KJV of 1 John 5:7?

John 5:7 (KJV) "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one." 1 John 5:7 (NIV) For there are three that testify: ...
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Is Numbers 12:3 an interpolation?

Numbers 12:1-5 NIV (1) Miriam and Aaron began to talk against Moses because of his Cushite wife, for he had married a Cushite. (2) “Has the Lord spoken only through Moses?” they asked. “Hasn’t he ...
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Textual Criticism of 2 Samuel 23:8 and 1 Chronicles 11:11

2 Samuel 23:8 אלה שמות הגברים אשר לדוד ישב בשבת תחכמני ראש השלשי הוא עדינו העצנו על־שמנה מאות חלל בפעם אחד ס These are the names of David’s mighty warriors: Josheb-Basshebeth, a Tahkemonite, ...
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When is the Septuagint containing manuscript “Codex Sinaiticus” dated?

I would like to know the dating of this particular manuscript that contains Deuteronomy in the Septuagint version. How do I find that out? I mean was it written before 3rd century BC or was it ...
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Which Tobit 1:1 genealogy is closer to the original?

What did the genealogy look like in the original version of Tobit? Did it look like the one in Vaticanus, or like the one in Sinaiticus, or neither? Tobit 1:1: Codex Vaticanus B — ΒΙΒΛΟΣ ΛΟΓΩΝ ...
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Does Genesis 22:13 speak of a “single ram”, “another ram”, or “a ram behind”?

Genesis 22:13 (MT) reads: וַיִּשָּׂ֨א אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּרְא֙ וְהִנֵּה־אַ֔יִל אַחַ֕ר נֶאֱחַ֥ז בַּסְּבַ֖ךְ בְּקַרְנָ֑יו וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ אַבְרָהָם֙ וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־הָאַ֔יִל וַיַּעֲלֵ֥הוּ לְעֹלָ֖ה ...
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Defense of a variant of Numbers 22:5 about the location of Pethor

Numbers 22:5 (MT) reads: וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח מַלְאָכִ֜ים אֶל־בִּלְעָ֣ם בֶּן־בְּעֹ֗ר פְּ֠ת֠וֹרָה אֲשֶׁ֧ר עַל־הַנָּהָ֛ר אֶ֥רֶץ בְּנֵי־עַמּ֖וֹ לִקְרֹא־ל֑וֹ לֵאמֹ֗ר הִ֠נֵּ֠ה עַ֣ם יָצָ֤א מִמִּצְרַ֙יִם֙ הִנֵּ֤ה ...
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What factors attest Nehemiah 7:68 is, or is not original to Nehemiah?

Nehemiah 7:68, is missing from most Hebrew manuscripts. This fact suggests it was not in the autograph (original). Nevertheless, it is included in most English translations: 67 besides their male ...
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The confusing order of Laban's tent raids in Genesis 31:33

In Genesis 31:33 we read of Laban's search of the tents of Jacob's party: וַיָּבֹא לָבָן בְּאֹהֶל יַעֲקֹב וּבְאֹהֶל לֵאָה וּבְאֹהֶל שְׁתֵּי הָאֲמָהֹת וְלֹא מָצָא וַיֵּצֵא מֵאֹהֶל לֵאָה וַיָּבֹא ...
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Theory to explain ordering of tribes in Numbers 13

I noticed two strange things about the the listing of the tribes in Numbers 13:4-15. Firstly, the order of the tribes is as follows: Reuben, Simon, Judah, Issachar, Ephraim, Benjamin, Zebulun, ...
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Possible Word Inversion in Romans 9:5?

I couldn't help but notice, while pondering on another question, that inverting the current word order of the Greek text of Romans 9:4-5 by replacing the final o on from the middle of verse 5 with on ...
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In Ephesian 5:27 what does Christ “present to himself”?

I was struck with the oddness of a groom "presenting" one's bride "to himself" as it doesn't match our culture where the father of the bride "gives away" his daughter. As I looked at this familiar ...
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Did Plutarch Use the Term Sabbatismos in Plutarch, De Superstitione 3, in Moralia 2. 166a

Question: What are the actual phrases used by Plutarch, in regards to "sabbatismos / σαββατισμὸς" - in the different manuscripts of his writings, (if there is more than one reading in Greek). How / ...
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Why does the genealogy of Jesus in Matthew (NASB) omit Admin of Luke 3:33 (NASB)?

I'm comparing both Matthew and Luke's genealogy of Jesus. Matthew wrote this: Ram was the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon... - Mat 1:3 (NASB) And Luke wrote this: the ...
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Does the Codex Sinaiticus contain the Hebrew Tetragrammaton or Greek LORD (KURIOS)?

The New King James Version uses the Tetragrammaton in the New Testament (written as +LORD [CAPS-smallcaps]) apparently it uses a Tetragrammaton source material, or it arbitrarily implies it while the ...
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Which reading is the original text of Ruth 1:2 (and other similar verses)?

As I noted in Usage of "fields of" vs. "land of" Moab in Ruth, in the first Chapter of Ruth, the term שדי/שדה מואב or "field(s) of Moab" is used to refer to the land of Moab. In ...
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What significance the text variant has for interpreting Revelation 13:1?

Revelation 13:1 (KJV) 1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of ...
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Why did Jesus call His mother “Woman”?

In John 19:26 it says, "When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!" This isn't the 1st time Jesus uses ...
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Exodus 12.40: Did it originally mention Canaan?

Just as Moses finally leads the Israelites out of slavery, Exodus 12.40 tells us how long the Israelites had lived in Egypt: NRSV The time that the Israelites had lived in Egypt was four hundred and ...
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“Covenant” or “covenants” in Romans 9:4?

In Romans 9:4, Paul writes (NIV): Theirs is the adoption to sonship; theirs the divine glory, the covenants, the receiving of the law, the temple worship and the promises. It seems that some of ...
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Why is Acts 8:37 omitted in some Bibles?

And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. -- Acts 8:37 (KJV) Why don't some versions of Bible ...
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Were Bela and Balaam originally the same person?

Genesis 36.31-32 (NRSV) These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the Israelites. Bela son of Beor reigned in Edom, the name of his city being Dinhabah. ...
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Is “ Ὁ ὢν” used as a title for Yahweh in LXX Jeremiah?

While looking into a question about the Greek phrase "ο ων" ("the one being") as a title for Yahweh in Koine Greek literature, I ran across this appellation in LXX Jeremiah. It occurs three times in ...
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Is there any evidence to support Beza's inclusion of εκ σου in Luke 1:35?

The text of Luke 1:35 according to Erasmus (1519) Stephens (1550) Elzevir (1624) Byzantine Majority (2000) and Byzantine Majority (Family 35) is as follows : και το γεννωμενον αγιον κληθησεται ...
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Why does a segolate noun in Psalm 38:1[2] retain its segol with pronominal suffix?

The first column (right-to-left) is a list of segolate nouns. The second column shows that, when a pronoun is added to segolate noun, the vowel under the first letter of the root reverts to whatever ...
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John 1:28 Bethany/Bethabara Location?

So, i'm just wanting to know where the location of Bethany is as mentioned by John. I've seen different maps that have it in different places. Some NT maps even show two Bethanys! You should see the ...
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Does Isaiah 7:14 rule out the possibility of sex during the miraculous pregnancy?

If one is satisfied that Isaiah 7:14 is properly translated as: King James Bible Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call ...
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What is the BEST Textual Cristicism argument for keeping “us” in Revelation 5:9 and 10?

There seems to be a lot of information as to why Rev 5:9 should be read as "them" instead of us, but what are the strongest arguments from a textual manuscript criticism basis for keeping the TR "us?"
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Proper translation of Genesis 49:10 [duplicate]

In Genesis 49:10, comparing ESV with NIV with NETS (Septuagint) with JPS with NKJV, all seem to be saying different things for the second half of the verse - which is correct? This has major ...
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Was Jesus Forgiving the Adulteress Originally in the Gospel of John? [duplicate]

I've heard this story was not originally part of the Gospel, but was added in. The best reason I can imagine is it shares many sentiments with Matthew 18's parable of the king who forgives the ...
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Duplicate bible verses - Does it also duplicate in the original text? [closed]

I read the Proverbs and I suddenly notice that there is duplicated text PROVERBS 22:3 The prudent sees danger and hides himself, but the simple go on and suffer for it. PROVERBS 27:12 The ...
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What does a writer accomplish by the use of ὑποκάτω in place of ὑποπόδιον when citing Psalm 110?

After clearing the Temple, when the children cry out "Hosanna to the Son of David" the chief priests and the scribes protest and Jesus responds by citing from the Psalms: and they said to him, “Do ...
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Why were Japhetic peoples the only ones to be described as gentiles in the table of nations? Genesis 10:5?

Genesis 10:5 (KJV) 5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations. The word "gentile" is only mentioned once ...
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Should the bondwoman be scourged?

In Leviticus 19:20, the ESV reads: Leviticus 19:20–22 If a man lies sexually with a woman who is a slave, assigned to another man and not yet ransomed or given her freedom, a distinction shall ...
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In Acts 19:14 - How else could “Seven sons of Skeva” be translated?

In Acts 19:14, Is "Seven Sons of Skeva" a valid translation? Are there any other plausible interpretations? Westcott and Hort / [NA27 variants] ἦσαν δέ τινος Σκευᾶ Ἰουδαίου ἀρχιερέως ἑπτὰ υἱοὶ ...
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In 1 Corinthians 10:9 why does Paul say that the Israelites “tested Christ”?

NIV 1 Corinthians 10: 1For I do not want you to be ignorant of the fact, brothers and sisters, that our ancestors were all under the cloud and that they all passed through the sea. 2They were all ...
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Why do some versions have “Christ” in 1 Peter 3:15 while others have “God”?

I'm finding inconsistencies between translations of 1 Peter 3:15 KJV But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts... NASB but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts ESV but in your hearts ...
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Fruit of the 'Spirit' or 'Light' in Ephesians 5:9?

Ephesians 5:9 [9]_ ὁ γὰρ καρπὸς τοῦ φωτὸς ἐν πάσῃ ἀγαθωσύνῃ καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ _ (KJV)Ephesians 5:9 (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;) ...
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Rev 1:8: Why is 'legei Kurios' not in the critical apparatus of UBS5, as a variant of 'legei Kurios o Theos'?

Background: Today I bought a UBS5 Greek New Testament. As I looked up Revelation 1:8, I noticed that the critical apparatus doesn't include the variant 'legei Kurios' (in stead of 'legei Kurios o ...
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How should Mark 3:14 be translated?

There is a significant textual variant in Mark 3:14 and a range of variant translations indicating that the passage is not at all straightforward. How should the textual and translation issues be ...
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What are the sources for the textual variants of Romans 8:1?

I know variants exist which exclude, "who walk not according to the he flesh, but according to the spirit". I understand the TR includes those words, but I am also aware of newly discovered witnesses ...
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Daniel 9:24-27 earliest copy

what is the oldest existing copy of Daniel 9:24-27, and where could I find it? Thanks!
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The parallel account of The First Book of Samuel and Biblical inerrancy

I saw in the first book of Samuel some very similar accounts that leads me to believe that they come from different traditions. For example 1 Samuel 24 and 1 Samuel 26 or Saul throwing a spear at ...
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“an heir through God” (Gal 4:7 NAS) or “an heir of God through Christ” (Gal 4:7 KJV)?

Galatians 4:7 NASB Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and if a son, then an heir through God. KJV Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of ...