Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Augustine and John 17:3

Augustine in his commentary on John 17:3 said “ The proper order of the words is, That they may know You and Jesus Christ, whom You have sent, as the only true God.” https://www.newadvent.org/fathers/...
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Evidence for/against Romans chapter 16 being a later addition to the text?

There are those who suggest that chapter 16 is a later addition to an originally shorter epistle to the Romans. It strikes me that arguments against the originality of Romans 16 based upon what we do/...
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In Samuel 19, is it Naioth or hut of prophets?

In 1 Samuel 19:18 (NASB) So David fled and escaped, and came to Samuel at Ramah; and he informed him of everything that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and stayed in Naioth According to ...
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What textual evidence is there for the Orthodox Jewish Bible translation of John 8:25?

John 8:25, Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB) They were saying, therefore, to him, Who are you? Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach said to them, Why should I even speak to you at all? Compare this to (say) the ...
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In 1 Samuel 12, Barak or Bedan?

In 1 Samuel 12:11 NLT Then the LORD sent Gideon, Bedan, Jephthah, and Samuel to save you, and you lived in safety. NIV Then the LORD sent Jerub-Baal, Barak, Jephthah and Samuel, and he delivered ...
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When did the different meaning of Mark 1:2 first appear? “Isaiah” vs. “prophets”

As I understand it there is a difference in meaning in the Greek texts of Mark 1:2. Which leads to a difference in the NASB translation when compared to the KJV translation. With the NASB translation ...
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John 8:46, “prove me guilty of”, or “convicts”, or “reproach”?

John 8:46, NIV; Can any of you prove me guilty of sin? If I am telling the truth, why don't you believe me? John 8:46, NKJV; Which of you convicts Me of sin? And if I tell the truth, why do you not ...
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Was Jesus made to be SIN or a SIN OFFERING? [duplicate]

the righteousness of God in him. 2nd Corinthians 5:21 (KJV) I have not found a sufficient examination on this site for the true interpretation of this verse. I read my Russian bible primarily and it ...
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Additional 1 Samuel in the dead sea scrolls

I read 1 Samuel 11 on Bible Gateway. At the end of the chapter was a footnote. 1 Samuel 11:1 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls gifts Now Nahash king of the Ammonites oppressed the Gadites and ...
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What is the correct translation of Matthew 5:13 “How shall it be salted?”

The ESV translation of Matthew 5:13 says “You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt should lose its taste, how can it be made salty?[a] It’s no longer good for anything but to be thrown out and ...
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What is the Source of translations discrepancy in Gen. 8:4

It looks like that in the Original Hebrew Gen 8:4, and in KJV for example, the date given is the seventeenth of the seventh month וַתָּנַח הַתֵּבָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי, בְּשִׁבְעָה-עָשָׂר יוֹם ...
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Psalm 14 or Psalm 53 - Which came first?

Psalm 14 and 53 are nearly identical. Thrice Psalm 14 uses "LORD" (the Tetragrammaton) where 53 uses "God". 53 adds "according to the machalath style; a well-written song"...
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Should it read גִלְעָד or גַלְעֵד?

Genesis 31:47-48 reads as follows: וַיִּקְרָא-לוֹ לָבָן, יְגַר שָׂהֲדוּתָא; וְיַעֲקֹב, קָרָא לוֹ גַּלְעֵד. מח וַיֹּאמֶר לָבָן, הַגַּל הַזֶּה עֵד בֵּינִי וּבֵינְךָ הַיּוֹם; עַל-כֵּן קָרָא-שְׁמוֹ, ...
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Why do English bibles remove the word “Jesus” from “Jesus the Christ” in Matthew 16:20?

We find textual variants in English bibles (NASB, ESV, NRSV, NIV) when compared to the KJV which states in Matthew 16:20 : [20] Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was [...
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Why isn't 2 Corinthians 13:14 in the NRSV?

I was researching references to the trinity in scripture, and although I am aware that the reference in 1 John 5:7 is likely spurious, can't seem to find the verse in the NRSV. There is no note as to ...
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Acts 5:31 - Does any reputable manuscript suggest that Jesus is God's Chief Agent

While doing research to answer a question on Christ Jesus being our Saviour, I noticed something strange in the New World Translation while reading Acts 5:31. The King James Version, New International ...
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What is the origin of the additional words to John 3:13?

There is a Q regarding the meaning of this verse. This Q is regarding the authenticity of the 'addition' - and what was intended by it. https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/25129/what-is-...
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What are the evidences for the Q source theory? [closed]

What exactly are the evidences for the "Q source theory"? When I say the "Q source theory" I basically mean any of the modern theories that deviate from view that the Gospels were ...
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Purchased - from whom? (Acts 28:20)

I have an exegetical query regarding Acts 20:28 Acts 20:28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, ...
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How might Amos 4:13 LXX come to speak of Christ?

The Hebrew of Amos 4:13 does not mention Christ: [Amo 4:13 NLT] (13) For the LORD is the one who shaped the mountains, stirs up the winds, and reveals his thoughts to mankind. He turns the light of ...
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Comparison of Vaticanus and Siniaticus in an interlineary

This is my problem: I would like to be able to compare the two most referred-to texts (which most modern versions are based on); but I cannot find a way to do it. I do not read Greek - though I am ...
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When there is disparity between different translations with one verse, what reasons determine the translator's choice of MSS [duplicate]

For example, in Luke 24 verses 33-43 relate the event where the newly resurrected Jesus was proving to the disciples that he was not a ghost - not a phantom - not a spirit, by asking them to give him ...
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Regarding Asaph (אָ֫סָ֥ף ), why do digital versions of KJV Bible remove his name from Psalms 73-83?

Regarding Asaph (אָ֫סָ֥ף), why do certain online KJV texts remove his name from Psalms 73-83, such as Bible Gateway's? If we only read the KJV, the Tehillim (Psalms) may appear to be written by King ...
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Does DSS version of Psalm 119:65 reveal Masoretes abbreviated original text?

Besides revealing the ancient Hebrew Name of YHVH from 30 AD, does the DSS version of [Psalm 119:65] prove the original Hebrew suffix “Your” (Kha) was originally written with a combined ‘Kaf-Hei’ ...
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Why is Elijah/Elias mentioned Luke 9:54 in the KJV but not in some other bible versions such as the NASB?

Luke 9:54 KJV: And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as Elias did? Luke 9:54 NASB: When His ...
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Did Jesus say “For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever” in Matthew 6:13?

In Matthew's version of the Lord's prayer, we have Matthew 6:13 For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. But it is not in Luke's or in some Greek manuscripts. This phrase ...
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Why is the phrase 'not being myself under the law' missing in 1 Corinthians 9:20 in the KJV?

1 Corinthians 9:20 KJV 20 And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain them that are under the law; 1 ...
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What's this variant in the Codex Sinaiticus of John 1:18?

Everyone knows about the textual variant specific to the Alexandrian texts that say "only-begotten God" as opposed to the Byzantine, Caesarean and Western families all saying "only-...
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2 Kings 13:21 - וַיֵּלֶךְ - who went?

2 kings 13:21 וַיְהִי הֵם קֹבְרִים אִישׁ, וְהִנֵּה רָאוּ אֶת-הַגְּדוּד, וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אֶת-הָאִישׁ, בְּקֶבֶר אֱלִישָׁע; וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּגַּע הָאִישׁ, בְּעַצְמוֹת אֱלִישָׁע, וַיְחִי, וַיָּקָם עַל-...
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What are the literary device(s) used in Psalm 44 to express God's Victories as He battles?

I might just be asking something that's quite obvious, but I just wanted more insight and clarity. When the Israelites battled against their foes at Beth-horon, God did drop large stones/hailstones on ...
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Textual varient in Ex. 20:3

Exodus 20:3 לֹא-יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים, עַל-פָּנָי יִהְיֶֽה verb qal imperfect 3rd person masculine singular Ed:BHS has been faithful to L (the Leningrad Codex) where there might be a ...
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Romans 13:9, what is the accurate text? With or without “false testimony”?

Romans 13:9, (DRB): For Thou shalt not commit adultery: Thou shalt not kill: Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness: Thou shalt not covet: and if there be any other commandment, it ...
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1 Peter 3:21 in Papyrus 72 and Codex Sinaiticus

1 Peter 3:21 I recently noticed that in both Papyrus 72 and Codex Sinaiticus a semicolon appears before baptism. Wouldn’t this move baptism out of the first part of the verse and change the verse ...
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1 Peter 3:22, what are the accurate translations of this verse?

1 Peter 3:22 (DRB): Who is on the right hand of God, swallowing down death, that we might be made heirs of life everlasting: being gone into heaven, the angels and powers and virtues being made ...
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1 John 5:7,8 (ESV, NIV) why is “Earth” not found? [duplicate]

1 John 5:7,8 (ESV, NIV): For there are three that testify: the Spirit and the water and the blood; and these three agree. For there are three that testify: the Spirit, the water and ...
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Genesis 27:39, which translations are most accurate? The affirmation translations or the negation ones?

Negation translations like: NIV, NLT, GNT, NWT, ESV, BSB, NASB, CEV. Affirmation translations like: KJV, NKJV, NHEB, ASV, DRB. Example of negation translations of Genesis 27:39, GNT: Then Isaac ...
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How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem?

How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem? Answer1 2 Kings 8:26 (KJV): Two and twenty years old Answer2 2 Chronicles 22:2 (KJV): Forty and two years old
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(Romans 8:26) “What” to pray And/Or “How” to pray of a specific prayer

I do Not have any comprehension and/or fluency in the Greek language(s). However, I wanted to get a better understanding of Romans 8:26 which is related to prayer. I might just be nit-picking. As I ...
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Variant Readings of Titus 2:13

Are there any variant readings of Titus 2:13, possessing at least one of the following three characteristics ? the omission of the name Jesus Christ at the end of the verse a definite article placed ...
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(1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18)Alexandrian manuscripts relatively practical, level-headed while Byzantine manuscripts are rhetorical hyperbole-like

As I was reading 1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18 in different bible translations belonging to either the Byzantine family or the Alexandrian family of manuscripts. I noticed that the Alexandrian ...
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Why DRB translated “prudens”, and “prudentes” as “wise” in some verses, While was forced to translate them as “prudent” in some other verses?

I consider- through my research- Latin Vulgate as the most reliable and authentic text of the Bible. DRB (Douay-Rheims Bible), I consider, the most loyal, literal English translation of the Latin ...
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Why does the 1 Samuel 10:27 paragraph found in 4QSamª not appear in other texts?

I was reading 1 Samuel 10 in the New Living Translation and found that in the verse 27, there is the following paragraph: [Nahash, king of the Ammonites, had been grievously oppressing the people ...
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Why John 1:1 in (DRB)(Douay-Rheims Bible) is not literal translation from the Latin Vulgate?

John 1:1 in DRB (Douay-Rheims) is: "... and the Word was God." This is not literal translation from the Latin Vulgate. John 1:1 LV: "...et Deus erat Verbum." I think the literal English ...
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What are the main Textual Differences between KJV and DRB?

First of all, the answer is possible, but needs some effort. I am not overhasty, take your time. I think the honest answer will direct us toward the most accurate translation to the most accurate ...
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What is the correct translation of Jeremiah 6:2?

Jeremiah 6:2 New American Standard Bible (NASB) 2“The comely and dainty one, the daughter of Zion, I will cut off. Jeremiah 6:2 King James Version (KJV) 2 I have likened the daughter of Zion to ...
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What is the most accurate (original Greek text), and (translation) of Jude 1:4?

KJV of Jude 1:4 declares that God is the only lord, beside the lord Jesus Christ, i.e: it may means that the only Lord is God the father, beside the lord Jesus Christ. Like KJV, also, World English ...
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Why is the word “Christ” missing in Matthew 23:8 in some translations?

Matthew 23:8 NASB 8 >But do not be called Rabbi; for One is your Teacher, and you are all brothers. Matthew 23:8 KJV 8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye ...
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Why is 1 Kings 22:47-50 missing in the LXX?

1 Kings 22:47-50 which describes the death of Jehoshaphat is missing in the LXX. What could be the reason for having left out these verses?
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Is it adulterers and adulteresses in James 4:4?

James 4:4 NASB 4 You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with the world is hostility toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. James ...
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What role should hermeneutics be given in determining the “original” text?

The cataloging of a textual variations requires a decision on the primary text and variations are placed in the apparatus. Initially, the primary reading was taken from the majority of manuscripts. ...

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