Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Why do some translations of Ephesians 4:9 have the word "first" and others do not?

I am wondering about the logic behind some translations including the word "first" in Ephesians 4:9 when other translations do not. For example, the KJV/NKJV include the word "first&...
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2 answers
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Isaiah 9:6 "Father of the world to come", "Everlasting Father", "Father of eternity" which is more accurate according to textual criticism?

Isaiah 9:6; Young's Literal Translation; 6...Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace. Isaiah 9:6; English Standard Version; 6...called[b] Wonderful Counselor, Mighty ...
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Why are there word differences in Jesus’ teaching on internal defilement?

I don’t see any translators note within the realm of “textual criticism” here in Mark 7:21-23 from the NET so I’m confused when compared to the NKJV: “For from within, out of the human heart, come ...
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John 9:35, son of man or son of God?

John 9:35; DRB; 35 Jesus heard that they had cast him out: and when he had found him, he said to him: Dost thou believe in the Son of God? John 9:35; ESV; 35 Jesus heard that they had cast him out, ...
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Which has better manuscript attestation in Luke 6:9?

The KJV with Strong's concordance has the following for Luke 6:9 (word in question is emboldened): Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or ...
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What is the most accurate rendering of Psalms 11:7

4 different translations: “For the Lord is righteous, He loves righteousness; His countenance beholds the upright.” ‭‭Psalms‬ ‭11:7‬ ‭NKJV “Certainly the Lord is just; he rewards godly deeds; the ...
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What is the most accurate rendering of Psalms 7:11 (Textual Criticism)

A few different translations: “God judgeth the righteous, And God is angry with the wicked every day.” ‭‭Psalm‬ ‭7:11‬ ‭KJV “God is a righteous judge, And a God who shows indignation every day.” ‭‭...
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Daniel Chapter 3- Why Do Some Translations have More Verses?

I have noticed that some versions of Daniel 3 end at verse 30, while other versions continue after that point for many more verses. Which version is correct?
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3 answers
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Jude 1:8; which is more accurate KJV or DRB?

Jude 1:8; ESV; 8 Yet in like manner these people also, relying on their dreams, defile the flesh, reject authority, and blaspheme the glorious ones. Jude 1:8; ASV; 8 Yet in like manner these also ...
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How can we trust the Hebrew Bible to be accurate when the oldest MSS go back only to about the tenth century C.E.?

The oldest complete MSS of the Hebrew Bible is from about the tenth century C.E.? We have portions of manuscripts from the years between 200 B.C.E. and 200 C.E.(the Dead Sea scrolls) but nothing like ...
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Psalm 16:2 first person or second person

Some translations render “said” in Psalm 16:2 as first person singular, while others choose second person singular. Which of these two translations has a stronger textual basis? From what I can see, ...
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Who is "His" in NASB "Scepter of HIS kingdom" Hebrews 1:8 if the Father is speaking to the Son?

Hebrews 1:8 NASB 1995 But of the Son He says, “YOUR THRONE, O GOD, IS FOREVER AND EVER, AND THE RIGHTEOUS SCEPTER IS THE SCEPTER OF HIS KINGDOM. Who is this "HIS" if the Father is speaking ...
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What is the biblical worldview of the arabs that Paul encountered in his three years from his conversion? [closed]

Did he encounter a view of God that was based on Abraham as the father of the Arabs apart from the Jews? Could God have been helping him to understand abrahamic covenant theology from the Arab ...
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2 Chronicles 22:2; 2 Chronicles 21:20; was Ahaziah two years when he reigned, or there are two Ahaziahs?

2 Chronicles 22:2; 2 Forty and two years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother's name also was Athaliah the daughter of Omri. 2 Chronicles 21:20; ...
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3 votes
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In Johannine Comma: Three are One, or Three in One, or Three in are?

In the Johannine Comma, i.e: 1John 5:7, the Greek texts which contain the trinity mention εν which means in, look: 1550 Stephanus New Testament: 7 οτι τρεις εισιν οι μαρτυρουντες εν τω ουρανω ο πατηρ ...
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4 votes
6 answers
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Is 1 Timothy 3:16 wording so critical that if one wrong word is used, the relationship of Father with Son, and Who became flesh, is made uncertain?

This is about the relationship of the Son to the Father, and to the fact of Who actually came into the world via the virgin's womb. Different translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 read: “Hos was manifested ...
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Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Works Questioning the Internal Unity of 2 Esdras 1-2

Among the King James Version Apocrypha, there is a certain book, called Second Esdras, which is found neither in the Masoretic Text, nor in the Greek Septuagint; its first two and last two chapters ...
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Why do [1 Peter 2:8 | Romans 9:33] misquote the Greek LXX version of Isaiah 8:14?

Apostles Peter & Paul prefer a different version of [Isaiah 8:14] based on their revision of the Greek LXX. Referencing the Isaiah 8:14 as documented in Septuagint, we read : “καὶ ἐὰν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ ...
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Why does the apostle Peter misquote Isaiah 28:16 in [1 Peter 2:6]?

If the Greek LXX version of Isaiah 28 was studied by Peter, Why does the apostle Peter misquote Isaiah 28:16 in [1 Peter 2:6]? [1 Peter 2:6, LXX] “Ἰδού, [τίθημι ἐν] Σιὼν λίθον [?] ἀκρογωνιαῖον ...
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Why does Deuteronomy 7:11 in [MT] show מִּצְוָה Mitsvah (s.) for "Commandments" (pl.), instead of Mitsvot , like "ἐντολὰς" [LXX]?

If the word "Commandments" (plural) was actually meant to be written in [Deuteronomy 7:11], why does the [MT] show the singular word מִּצְוָה versus the [LXX] plural word ἐντολὰς? [MT, ...
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2 votes
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If the LXX version of Judges 18:30 states "Μωυσῆ" (Moses), why would New Testament bibles prefer מְנַשֶּׁ֜ה (Menasseh) from Tanakh's MT?

Why would Tanakh's MT sometimes be preferred over Greek LXX as correct sources for New Testament bibles? - Example : Judges 18:30. [Judges 18:30, LXX] states : "καὶ ἀνέστησαν ἑαυτοῗς οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ ...
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Did Jesus establish in Matthew 4:4 that the later LXX editions add words to Deuteronomy 8:3?

Jesus teaches us in Matthew 4:4 what is written in Deuteronomy 8:3 LXX, but Jesus excludes two words (ὁ,τῷ) from his citation of Deuteronomy 8:3 LXX. [Matthew 4:4] Οὐκ ἐπ᾽ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ἄνθρωπος : ...
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1 vote
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Why would the Textus Receptus edition of Matthew 3:11 include "kai pyr" (καὶ πυρί) if the majority M-Texts omit the words & few NU-Texts include them?

If the NKJV says a Majority (M) of greek manuscripts exclude "καὶ πυρί" in [Matthew 3:11] but the NU-Texts includes "καὶ πυρί", then what specific reason warranted the [inspired] ...
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Why did Textus Receptus add "prōtotokos" in Matthew 1:25, or why did the greek NU-Text omit "firstborn" before son?

In Matthew 1:25 of NKJV english translation of greek Textus Receptus, we are given a Footnote [fn] "NU-Text reads a Son." | This footnote is highlighting to readers the Greek word for "...
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5 votes
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Do any manuscripts have the singular 'sin' in Colossians 2:11?

I previously asked the question What is the textual evidence for 'of the sins' in Colossians 2:11 ? and received an answer which I both up-voted and accepted. Now, I am trying to discover if any ...
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3 votes
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What makes scholars think there were one or two discrete gospel sources and not many indistinct ones?

My only knowledge of popular solutions to the synoptic problem comes from Wikipedia, where they all have non-canonical gospel sources numbering about one or two (or sometimes just zero). Not many ...
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9 votes
3 answers
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What is the justification for adding the words "is himself God" in John 1:18 of the New International Version and New Living Translation bibles?

John 1:18 NIV No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made him known. John 1:18 NLT No one has ever seen God. But the ...
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2 votes
4 answers
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Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28 Interpretation

The common interpretation of Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28, is telling about Satan and him being cast down. Has anyone ever hear a different interpretation before? If so, what was it? Thank you,
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2 answers
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Does Revelation 22:18-19 threaten Christian Scribes salvation in terms of a parablepsis or Gloss?

“For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; and if anyone takes away ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Analysis of Daniel 9:26

A question for those with ability with Hebrew .. Daniel 9:26 DANIEL 9:26 And after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself; And the people of the prince who is to come Shall ...
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8 votes
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Why is the doctrine of fasting omitted by the modern revisions of the Bible?

Jesus fasted 40 days in the wilderness (see Matthew 4:2), just as Moses had done and Elijah had done (see Exodus 24:18, 1 Kings 19:8). And Jesus taught the disciples to fast, such as before ...
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7 votes
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How does passing food through the body make all foods clean, as per Mark 7:19 in the modern versions?

The modern translations present a real conundrum with Mark 7:19. The traditional KJV has it as: Because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Does Tregelles' description of the Armenian edition imply that Greek manuscripts were routinely altered to match the Vulgate?

Does Tregelles' description of the Armenian edition imply that translations based on Greek manuscripts were routinely altered to match the Vulgate? The Armenian Version by Miesrob in the fourth ...
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5 votes
2 answers
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Which manuscripts indicate the NIV footnote alternative of "Father keep them faithful to your name"?

John 17:11 I will remain in the world no longer, but they are still in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them by the power of[a] your name, the name you gave me, so that they may ...
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4 votes
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Origin of John 8:1-11

I am looking for a possible source and early references for John 8:1-11. There is evidence that this story was not part of the original Gospel of John as the oldest manuscripts do not contain it. In ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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Why do most modern Greek text editions drop "that ye should not obey the truth" in Gal 3:1?

When I saw the Greek for Gal 3:1 I was surprised to find how modern literal translations of ESV, NRSV, NASB seem to drop the clause τῇ ἀληθείᾳ μὴ πείθεσθαι (that ye should not obey the truth). For ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Were the last 12 verses of the Gospel of Mark in fact taken from Luke?

Were the last 12 verses of the Gospel of Mark in fact taken from Luke? Here it states that in the Gospel of Mark there is an added portion (Mark 16:9-20) In this reference I didn't find the following ...
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6 votes
2 answers
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Meaning of "For when a face is sad a heart may be happy"

In Ecclesiastes 7:3 (NASB) Sorrow is better than laughter, For when a face is sad a heart may be happy. What is the meaning of "For when a face is sad a heart may be happy"?
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2 votes
1 answer
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Remains of Aramaic/Hebrew version of Matthew

We know from several early Christian theologists that the Gospel of Matthew existed in a Hebrew or Aramaic version before parts of NT that were written in Greek were translated into Syriac in the ...
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6 votes
3 answers
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Augustine and John 17:3

Augustine in his commentary on John 17:3 said “ The proper order of the words is, That they may know You and Jesus Christ, whom You have sent, as the only true God.” https://www.newadvent.org/fathers/...
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Evidence for/against Romans chapter 16 being a later addition to the text?

There are those who suggest that chapter 16 is a later addition to an originally shorter epistle to the Romans. It strikes me that arguments against the originality of Romans 16 based upon what we do/...
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2 votes
1 answer
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In Samuel 19, is it Naioth or hut of prophets?

In 1 Samuel 19:18 (NASB) So David fled and escaped, and came to Samuel at Ramah; and he informed him of everything that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and stayed in Naioth According to ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What textual evidence is there for the Orthodox Jewish Bible translation of John 8:25?

John 8:25, Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB) They were saying, therefore, to him, Who are you? Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach said to them, Why should I even speak to you at all? Compare this to (say) the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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In 1 Samuel 12, Barak or Bedan?

In 1 Samuel 12:11 NLT Then the LORD sent Gideon, Bedan, Jephthah, and Samuel to save you, and you lived in safety. NIV Then the LORD sent Jerub-Baal, Barak, Jephthah and Samuel, and he delivered ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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When did the different meaning of Mark 1:2 first appear? "Isaiah" vs. "prophets"

As I understand it there is a difference in meaning in the Greek texts of Mark 1:2. Which leads to a difference in the NASB translation when compared to the KJV translation. With the NASB translation ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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John 8:46, "prove me guilty of", or "convicts", or "reproach"?

John 8:46, NIV; Can any of you prove me guilty of sin? If I am telling the truth, why don't you believe me? John 8:46, NKJV; Which of you convicts Me of sin? And if I tell the truth, why do you not ...
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6 votes
0 answers
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Was Jesus made to be SIN or a SIN OFFERING? [duplicate]

the righteousness of God in him. 2nd Corinthians 5:21 (KJV) I have not found a sufficient examination on this site for the true interpretation of this verse. I read my Russian bible primarily and it ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Additional 1 Samuel in the dead sea scrolls

I read 1 Samuel 11 on Bible Gateway. At the end of the chapter was a footnote. 1 Samuel 11:1 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls gifts Now Nahash king of the Ammonites oppressed the Gadites and ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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What is the correct translation of Matthew 5:13 "How shall it be salted?"

The ESV translation of Matthew 5:13 says “You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt should lose its taste, how can it be made salty?[a] It’s no longer good for anything but to be thrown out and ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What is the Source of translations discrepancy in Gen. 8:4

It looks like that in the Original Hebrew Gen 8:4, and in KJV for example, the date given is the seventeenth of the seventh month וַתָּנַח הַתֵּבָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי, בְּשִׁבְעָה-עָשָׂר יוֹם ...
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