Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Purchased - from whom? (Acts 28:20)

I have an exegetical query regarding Acts 20:28 Acts 20:28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, ...
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How might Amos 4:13 LXX come to speak of Christ?

The Hebrew of Amos 4:13 does not mention Christ: [Amo 4:13 NLT] (13) For the LORD is the one who shaped the mountains, stirs up the winds, and reveals his thoughts to mankind. He turns the light of ...
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Comparison of Vaticanus and Siniaticus in an interlineary

This is my problem: I would like to be able to compare the two most referred-to texts (which most modern versions are based on); but I cannot find a way to do it. I do not read Greek - though I am ...
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When there is disparity between different translations with one verse, what reasons determine the translator's choice of MSS [duplicate]

For example, in Luke 24 verses 33-43 relate the event where the newly resurrected Jesus was proving to the disciples that he was not a ghost - not a phantom - not a spirit, by asking them to give him ...
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Regarding Asaph (אָ֫סָ֥ף ), why do digital versions of KJV Bible remove his name from Psalms 73-83?

Regarding Asaph (אָ֫סָ֥ף), why do certain online KJV texts remove his name from Psalms 73-83, such as Bible Gateway's? If we only read the KJV, the Tehillim (Psalms) may appear to be written by King ...
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Why is Elijah/Elias mentioned Luke 9:54 in the KJV but not in some other bible versions such as the NASB?

Luke 9:54 KJV: And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as Elias did? Luke 9:54 NASB: When His ...
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Did Jesus say “For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever” in Matthew 6:13?

In Matthew's version of the Lord's prayer, we have Matthew 6:13 For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. But it is not in Luke's or in some Greek manuscripts. This phrase ...
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Why is the phrase 'not being myself under the law' missing in 1 Corinthians 9:20 in the KJV?

1 Corinthians 9:20 KJV 20 And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain them that are under the law; 1 ...
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What's this variant in the Codex Sinaiticus of John 1:18?

Everyone knows about the textual variant specific to the Alexandrian texts that say "only-begotten God" as opposed to the Byzantine, Caesarean and Western families all saying "only-...
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2 Kings 13:21 - וַיֵּלֶךְ - who went?

2 kings 13:21 וַיְהִי הֵם קֹבְרִים אִישׁ, וְהִנֵּה רָאוּ אֶת-הַגְּדוּד, וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אֶת-הָאִישׁ, בְּקֶבֶר אֱלִישָׁע; וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּגַּע הָאִישׁ, בְּעַצְמוֹת אֱלִישָׁע, וַיְחִי, וַיָּקָם עַל-...
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What are the literary device(s) used in Psalm 44 to express God's Victories as He battles?

I might just be asking something that's quite obvious, but I just wanted more insight and clarity. When the Israelites battled against their foes at Beth-horon, God did drop large stones/hailstones on ...
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Textual varient in Ex. 20:3

Exodus 20:3 לֹא-יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים, עַל-פָּנָי יִהְיֶֽה verb qal imperfect 3rd person masculine singular Ed:BHS has been faithful to L (the Leningrad Codex) where there might be a ...
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Romans 13:9, what is the accurate text? With or without “false testimony”?

Romans 13:9, (DRB): For Thou shalt not commit adultery: Thou shalt not kill: Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness: Thou shalt not covet: and if there be any other commandment, it ...
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1 Peter 3:21 in Papyrus 72 and Codex Sinaiticus

1 Peter 3:21 I recently noticed that in both Papyrus 72 and Codex Sinaiticus a semicolon appears before baptism. Wouldn’t this move baptism out of the first part of the verse and change the verse ...
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1 Peter 3:22, what are the accurate translations of this verse?

1 Peter 3:22 (DRB): Who is on the right hand of God, swallowing down death, that we might be made heirs of life everlasting: being gone into heaven, the angels and powers and virtues being made ...
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1 John 5:7,8 (ESV, NIV) why is “Earth” not found? [duplicate]

1 John 5:7,8 (ESV, NIV): For there are three that testify: the Spirit and the water and the blood; and these three agree. For there are three that testify: the Spirit, the water and ...
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Genesis 27:39, which translations are most accurate? The affirmation translations or the negation ones?

Negation translations like: NIV, NLT, GNT, NWT, ESV, BSB, NASB, CEV. Affirmation translations like: KJV, NKJV, NHEB, ASV, DRB. Example of negation translations of Genesis 27:39, GNT: Then Isaac ...
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How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem?

How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem? Answer1 2 Kings 8:26 (KJV): Two and twenty years old Answer2 2 Chronicles 22:2 (KJV): Forty and two years old
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(Romans 8:26) “What” to pray And/Or “How” to pray of a specific prayer

I do Not have any comprehension and/or fluency in the Greek language(s). However, I wanted to get a better understanding of Romans 8:26 which is related to prayer. I might just be nit-picking. As I ...
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Variant Readings of Titus 2:13

Are there any variant readings of Titus 2:13, possessing at least one of the following three characteristics ? the omission of the name Jesus Christ at the end of the verse a definite article placed ...
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(1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18)Alexandrian manuscripts relatively practical, level-headed while Byzantine manuscripts are rhetorical hyperbole-like

As I was reading 1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18 in different bible translations belonging to either the Byzantine family or the Alexandrian family of manuscripts. I noticed that the Alexandrian ...
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Why DRB translated “prudens”, and “prudentes” as “wise” in some verses, While was forced to translate them as “prudent” in some other verses?

I consider- through my research- Latin Vulgate as the most reliable and authentic text of the Bible. DRB (Douay-Rheims Bible), I consider, the most loyal, literal English translation of the Latin ...
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Why does the 1 Samuel 10:27 paragraph found in 4QSamª not appear in other texts?

I was reading 1 Samuel 10 in the New Living Translation and found that in the verse 27, there is the following paragraph: [Nahash, king of the Ammonites, had been grievously oppressing the people ...
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Why John 1:1 in (DRB)(Douay-Rheims Bible) is not literal translation from the Latin Vulgate?

John 1:1 in DRB (Douay-Rheims) is: "... and the Word was God." This is not literal translation from the Latin Vulgate. John 1:1 LV: "...et Deus erat Verbum." I think the literal English ...
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What are the main Textual Differences between KJV and DRB?

First of all, the answer is possible, but needs some effort. I am not overhasty, take your time. I think the honest answer will direct us toward the most accurate translation to the most accurate ...
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What is the correct translation of Jeremiah 6:2?

Jeremiah 6:2 New American Standard Bible (NASB) 2“The comely and dainty one, the daughter of Zion, I will cut off. Jeremiah 6:2 King James Version (KJV) 2 I have likened the daughter of Zion to ...
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Why is the word “Christ” missing in Matthew 23:8 in some translations?

Matthew 23:8 NASB 8 >But do not be called Rabbi; for One is your Teacher, and you are all brothers. Matthew 23:8 KJV 8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye ...
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Why is 1 Kings 22:47-50 missing in the LXX?

1 Kings 22:47-50 which describes the death of Jehoshaphat is missing in the LXX. What could be the reason for having left out these verses?
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Is Habakkuk 2:4 DSS an interpolation in progress?

Bear with me, please... Please refer to this link: http://dssenglishbible.com/habakkuk%202.htm The first text fragment is Habakkuk 2:4, all by itself. The second is the identical text as the first ...
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Is it adulterers and adulteresses in James 4:4?

James 4:4 NASB 4 You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with the world is hostility toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. James ...
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What role should hermeneutics be given in determining the “original” text?

The cataloging of a textual variations requires a decision on the primary text and variations are placed in the apparatus. Initially, the primary reading was taken from the majority of manuscripts. ...
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Why is John 5:4 missing in the NIV?

John 5:3-5 NIV 3 Here a great number of disabled people used to lie—the blind, the lame, the paralyzed. [4] [b] 5 One who was there had been an invalid for thirty-eight years. John 5:3-5 KJV 3 ...
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Why KJV translated “Χριστοῦ” as “God” in Ephesians 5:21?

Ephesians 5:21 (DRB): Being subject one to another, in the fear of Christ. Ephesians 5:21 (KJB): Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God. KJV and NKJV, both versions translated ...
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Did Jude 25 mention “σοφῷ” or not?

I was shocked when I read Jude 25 in one Greek text and some of English, Arabic and Latin translations, e.g: سميث/ڤانديك. الحياة. الأخبار السارة. اليسوعية. KJV. ESV. ASV. Vulgate. GNT. I found the ...
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Is Jesus flesh the veil in Heb 10:19?

Heb 10:19,20 which says in the NIV: Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the Most Holy Place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way opened for us through the curtain, that ...
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In which language was the name “Jesus” written and how was it pronounced in Matthew 1:1 first?

In which language was the name "Jesus" written and how was it pronounced in Matthew 1:1 first? This question is asked to find out if the claims of Nehemiah Gordon in his book The Naming of Jesus in ...
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Where, if anywhere is Psalms 22:16 in Qumran Dead Sea Scroll 4Q88/4QPs?

Regarding Psalm 22:16 By Psalm 22:16, I mean "Dogs surround me, a pack of villains encircles me; they pierce my hands and my feet." (v17 in the jewish verse numbering) Is Psalms 22:16 missing ...
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What is the 'me' in “masoretic text me” in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16?

What is the 'me' in "masoretic text me" in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16? https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm+22%3A16&version=NIV
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What happened to Psalm 14 verses 5–7?

In the classic Book of Common Prayer (Coverdale) psalter, there are these verses 5–7 of Psalm 14 (13 in the LXX/Vulgate numbering): Their throat is an open sepulchre, with their tongues have they ...
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Versions of Daniel not Mentioning Darius in the Sixth or Ninth Chapter

There are three main versions of the Book of Daniel : Masoretic, Old Greek, and Theodotion. However, they all read Darius (but allude to Cyrus) in both their sixth and ninth chapters. Are there any ...
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What is the argument for editing the term πορνείᾳ from scripture in Romans 1:29?

In the Byzantine text πορνείᾳ is present, and other later manuscripts do not show it . The King James translators of Rom 1:29 include the term, defined as "fornication". Most other modern ...
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Is the word “begotten” in John 3:16 of Authorized Version a problem that creates confusion when establishing the Deity of Christ?

The Authorized Version has the word "begotten" in John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have ...
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Why is it that in John 3:3 the ESV translates “be born from above” to “is born again”?

I was told that ESV uses the oldest Greek manuscripts to translate the scripture literally from Greek into English. So why is it that in John 3:3 the ESV translates "be born from above" to "is born ...
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Matthew 5:22: Is “without cause” in the original text?

The KJV renders Mt 5:22 (emphasis added) But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment The Greek (emphasis added) used by this ...
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What is the correct English translation from Greek and meaning of Hebrews 1:6?

What is the correct English translation from Greek and meaning of Hebrews 1:6 ? A few translations are: ( AKJV ) And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And ...
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What does “revocalization” mean in Bible footnotes?

For instance, the ESV adds a note to Proverbs 30:1 in regards to "I am weary, O God, and worn out.": Revocalization; Hebrew The man declares to Ithiel, to Ithiel and Ucal" What is "revocalization" ...
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What does Isaiah mean by saying that the LORD's “hand is stretched out still”? (Is. 5:25;9:12,17,21;10:4)

I heard explained that it means that the LORD will still extend mercy in spite of sins. I have also heard that it means just the opposite-that an extended hand in ancient Near Eastern context means a ...
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In Hebrews 1:3 is “by himself” original?

I came across an interesting NT textual criticism site that argues that the words "by himself" are original, despite being omitted in modern English Bibles: Heb. 1:3 In Hebrews 1:3, most modern ...
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Do any manuscripts of Revelation 1:18 read Ο ΩΝ instead of Ο ΖΩΝ?

To my mind, the ο ων of Exodus 3 would fit better here than ο ζων, even more naturally, with the words "I am the First and the Last," ο ων of course being the translation of the Tetragrammaton in the ...
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Verse Division in 1 Peter 3:15-16 / μετά πραΰτητος καί φόβου in

In 1 Peter 3, the Greek phrase μετά πραΰτητος καί φόβου appears in verse 15 in the Textus Receptus (https://www.blueletterbible.org/nasb/1pe/3/15/t_conc_1154015), but in verse 16 in the GNT (https://...

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