Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Is it adulterers and adulteresses in James 4:4?

James 4:4 NASB 4 You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with the world is hostility toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. James ...
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What role should hermeneutics be given in determining the “original” text?

The cataloging of a textual variations requires a decision on the primary text and variations are placed in the apparatus. Initially, the primary reading was taken from the majority of manuscripts. ...
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Why is John 5:4 missing in the NIV?

John 5:3-5 NIV 3 Here a great number of disabled people used to lie—the blind, the lame, the paralyzed. [4] [b] 5 One who was there had been an invalid for thirty-eight years. John 5:3-5 KJV 3 ...
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Why KJV translated “Χριστοῦ” as “God” in Ephesians 5:21?

KJV and NKJV, both versions translated "Χριστοῦ" as "God" in Ephesians 5:21. While many other translations translated it as "Christ". The Arabic version سميث/ڤانديك translated it as "الله", meaning "...
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Did Jude 25 mention “σοφῷ” or not?

I was shocked when I read Jude 25 in one Greek text and some of English, Arabic and Latin translations, e.g: سميث/ڤانديك. الحياة. الأخبار السارة. اليسوعية. KJV. ESV. ASV. Vulgate. GNT. I found the ...
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Is Jesus flesh the veil in Heb 10:19?

Heb 10:19,20 which says in the NIV: Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the Most Holy Place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way opened for us through the curtain, that ...
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In which language was the name “Jesus” written and how was it pronounced in Matthew 1:1 first?

In which language was the name "Jesus" written and how was it pronounced in Matthew 1:1 first? This question is asked to find out if the claims of Nehemiah Gordon in his book The Naming of Jesus in ...
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Where, if anywhere is Psalms 22:16 in Qumran Dead Sea Scroll 4Q88/4QPs?

Regarding Psalm 22:16 By Psalm 22:16, I mean "Dogs surround me, a pack of villains encircles me; they pierce my hands and my feet." (v17 in the jewish verse numbering) Is Psalms 22:16 missing ...
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What is the 'me' in “masoretic text me” in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16?

What is the 'me' in "masoretic text me" in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16? https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm+22%3A16&version=NIV
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What happened to Psalm 14 verses 5–7?

In the classic Book of Common Prayer (Coverdale) psalter, there are these verses 5–7 of Psalm 14 (13 in the LXX/Vulgate numbering): Their throat is an open sepulchre, with their tongues have they ...
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Versions of Daniel not Mentioning Darius in the Sixth or Ninth Chapter

There are three main versions of the Book of Daniel : Masoretic, Old Greek, and Theodotion. However, they all read Darius (but allude to Cyrus) in both their sixth and ninth chapters. Are there any ...
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What is the argument for editing the term πορνείᾳ from scripture in Romans 1:29?

In the Byzantine text πορνείᾳ is present, and other later manuscripts do not show it . The King James translators of Rom 1:29 include the term, defined as "fornication". Most other modern ...
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Is the word “begotten” in John 3:16 of Authorized Version a problem that creates confusion when establishing the Deity of Christ?

The Authorized Version has the word "begotten" in John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have ...
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Why is it that in John 3:3 the ESV translates “be born from above” to “is born again”?

I was told that ESV uses the oldest Greek manuscripts to translate the scripture literally from Greek into English. So why is it that in John 3:3 the ESV translates "be born from above" to "is born ...
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Matthew 5:22: Is “without cause” in the original text?

The KJV renders Mt 5:22 (emphasis added) But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment The Greek (emphasis added) used by this ...
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What is the correct English translation from Greek and meaning of Hebrews 1:6?

What is the correct English translation from Greek and meaning of Hebrews 1:6 ? A few translations are: ( AKJV ) And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And ...
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What does “revocalization” mean in Bible footnotes?

For instance, the ESV adds a note to Proverbs 30:1 in regards to "I am weary, O God, and worn out.": Revocalization; Hebrew The man declares to Ithiel, to Ithiel and Ucal" What is "revocalization" ...
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What does Isaiah mean by saying that the LORD's “hand is stretched out still”? (Is. 5:25;9:12,17,21;10:4)

I heard explained that it means that the LORD will still extend mercy in spite of sins. I have also heard that it means just the opposite-that an extended hand in ancient Near Eastern context means a ...
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In Hebrews 1:3 is “by himself” original?

I came across an interesting NT textual criticism site that argues that the words "by himself" are original, despite being omitted in modern English Bibles: Heb. 1:3 In Hebrews 1:3, most modern ...
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Do any manuscripts of Revelation 1:18 read Ο ΩΝ instead of Ο ΖΩΝ?

To my mind, the ο ων of Exodus 3 would fit better here than ο ζων, even more naturally, with the words "I am the First and the Last," ο ων of course being the translation of the Tetragrammaton in the ...
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Verse Division in 1 Peter 3:15-16 / μετά πραΰτητος καί φόβου in

In 1 Peter 3, the Greek phrase μετά πραΰτητος καί φόβου appears in verse 15 in the Textus Receptus (https://www.blueletterbible.org/nasb/1pe/3/15/t_conc_1154015), but in verse 16 in the GNT (https://...
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Why did NA27 include 2 Corinthians 13:14?

NA27 2 Cor 1314 Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ κοινωνία τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν. Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort, The New Testament in ...
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Is “Ish-bosheth” a modified form of “Eshbaal?”

A professor of mine made an interesting claim in class today with regard to 2 Samuel 2:8: But Abner the son of Ner, commander of Saul's army, had taken Ish-bosheth the son of Saul and brought him ...
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2 Samuel 1:26 — How does the Vulgate have a sentence not present in the Masoretic text or Septuagint?

I was scrolling through English translations of David's eulogy for Saul and Jonathan and noticed the Douay-Rheims Bible/the Vulgate has an entirely new sentence/thought in verse 26. The Masoretic ...
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Why is the word “honeycomb”, in Luke 24:42, missing from most Bible translations?

King James, together with a few other translations, has "fish and honeycomb" in Luke 24:42, while most other translations only mention "fish". Why is "honeycomb" missing? Is "honeycomb" a newer added ...
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Could Jesus actually have risen from the dead on the fourth day, instead on the third day?

I was reading Luke 24:7 just now. The verse is about an angel who tells the disciples that Jesus was going to rise the third day. I noticed that it didn’t say on the third day, or after the third day. ...
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Should we take up our cross daily or not?

In Luke 9:23 in the HCSB Jesus is quoted saying "If anyone wants to come with Me, he must deny himself, take up his cross daily and follow Me." In the parallel passages in Mark 8, and Matthew 16 ...
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God's decision regarding The Great Flood

Am curious as to how and why God went all "I'm going to get rid of ALL creation." in Genesis 6:7 to "Noah take animals with you aboard the Ark." in Genesis 6:19-20 concerning the beasts of the earth. ...
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Why are there only four kings of Persia in Daniel 11:2? [closed]

Daniel 11:2, Now then, I tell you the truth: Three more kings will arise in Persia, and then a fourth, who will be far richer than all the others. When he has gained power by his wealth, he ...
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What is the earliest dating we can put on the orderings of the books of the Old Testament?

What is the earliest dating we can put on the ordering of the books of the Old Testament? I understand that there are two orderings or at least, broadly, two orderings. One being the Tanach/Tanak/...
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Are nomina sacra thought to have been used in the autographs?

Nomina sacra are abbreviations used for the sacred names of God, Jesus, the Spirit, etc. (though also common unsacred words such as ανθρωπος) in many Greek manuscripts. Do any approaches to textual ...
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What is the difference between “the law” in John 1:17 & “the law” in Galatians 4:21

John 1:17 For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. Here the scripture says law was given through Moses. And again from Galatians 4:21-22 Tell me, you who ...
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What are the lameds in the scribal annotations in the Aleppo Codex?

In this comment on History SE, I recalled reading the Biblical book of 1 Kings in the Aleppo Codex (10th century AD). Where Elijah is taunting rival prophets with the suggestion that their god Ba'...
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Does 1 Peter 3:21 teach baptismal regeneration?

20Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. 21The like ...
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What is the textual evidence for 'of the sins' in Colossians 2:11?

Please Note : This is a question about the TR, not about the Westcott and Hort text or the Nestle Aland text. Stephens, Beza, Elzevir and Scrivener all include των αμαρτιων 'of the sins' in the text ...
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Meaning of “pc” in the Nestle-Aland critical apparatus (Revelation 5.10)

In Which translation for Revelation 5:10 is correct?, this answer gives a helpful explanation of which readings appear in which manuscripts. I don't doubt the author's correctness! But I am struggling ...
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Which translation for Revelation 5:10 is correct?

Some translations of this scripture use the pronoun "us" but other ones use the pronoun "them". The use actually changes what is going on prior to this scripture in terms of who is singing the new ...
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Why is the KJV version of Matthew 5:44 so much longer than other Bibles?

From my search the KJV includes the phrase, "do good to them that hate you" But that phrase doesn't seem to exist in the versions I typically use. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=...
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Why is there extra text in the KJV of 1 John 5:7?

John 5:7 (KJV) "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one." 1 John 5:7 (NIV) For there are three that testify: ...
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Is Numbers 12:3 an interpolation?

Numbers 12:1-5 NIV (1) Miriam and Aaron began to talk against Moses because of his Cushite wife, for he had married a Cushite. (2) “Has the Lord spoken only through Moses?” they asked. “Hasn’t he ...
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Textual Criticism of 2 Samuel 23:8 and 1 Chronicles 11:11

2 Samuel 23:8 אלה שמות הגברים אשר לדוד ישב בשבת תחכמני ראש השלשי הוא עדינו העצנו על־שמנה מאות חלל בפעם אחד ס These are the names of David’s mighty warriors: Josheb-Basshebeth, a Tahkemonite, ...
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When is the Septuagint containing manuscript “Codex Sinaiticus” dated?

I would like to know the dating of this particular manuscript that contains Deuteronomy in the Septuagint version. How do I find that out? I mean was it written before 3rd century BC or was it ...
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Which Tobit 1:1 genealogy is closer to the original?

What did the genealogy look like in the original version of Tobit? Did it look like the one in Vaticanus, or like the one in Sinaiticus, or neither? Tobit 1:1: Codex Vaticanus B — ΒΙΒΛΟΣ ΛΟΓΩΝ ...
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Does Genesis 22:13 speak of a “single ram”, “another ram”, or “a ram behind”?

Genesis 22:13 (MT) reads: וַיִּשָּׂ֨א אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּרְא֙ וְהִנֵּה־אַ֔יִל אַחַ֕ר נֶאֱחַ֥ז בַּסְּבַ֖ךְ בְּקַרְנָ֑יו וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ אַבְרָהָם֙ וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־הָאַ֔יִל וַיַּעֲלֵ֥הוּ לְעֹלָ֖ה ...
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Defense of a variant of Numbers 22:5 about the location of Pethor

Numbers 22:5 (MT) reads: וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח מַלְאָכִ֜ים אֶל־בִּלְעָ֣ם בֶּן־בְּעֹ֗ר פְּ֠ת֠וֹרָה אֲשֶׁ֧ר עַל־הַנָּהָ֛ר אֶ֥רֶץ בְּנֵי־עַמּ֖וֹ לִקְרֹא־ל֑וֹ לֵאמֹ֗ר הִ֠נֵּ֠ה עַ֣ם יָצָ֤א מִמִּצְרַ֙יִם֙ הִנֵּ֤ה ...
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What factors attest Nehemiah 7:68 is, or is not original to Nehemiah?

Nehemiah 7:68, is missing from most Hebrew manuscripts. This fact suggests it was not in the autograph (original). Nevertheless, it is included in most English translations: 67 besides their male ...
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The confusing order of Laban's tent raids in Genesis 31:33

In Genesis 31:33 we read of Laban's search of the tents of Jacob's party: וַיָּבֹא לָבָן בְּאֹהֶל יַעֲקֹב וּבְאֹהֶל לֵאָה וּבְאֹהֶל שְׁתֵּי הָאֲמָהֹת וְלֹא מָצָא וַיֵּצֵא מֵאֹהֶל לֵאָה וַיָּבֹא ...
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Theory to explain ordering of tribes in Numbers 13

I noticed two strange things about the the listing of the tribes in Numbers 13:4-15. Firstly, the order of the tribes is as follows: Reuben, Simon, Judah, Issachar, Ephraim, Benjamin, Zebulun, ...
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Possible Word Inversion in Romans 9:5?

I couldn't help but notice, while pondering on another question, that inverting the current word order of the Greek text of Romans 9:4-5 by replacing the final o on from the middle of verse 5 with on ...
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In Ephesian 5:27 what does Christ “present to himself”?

I was struck with the oddness of a groom "presenting" one's bride "to himself" as it doesn't match our culture where the father of the bride "gives away" his daughter. As I looked at this familiar ...

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