39

Paul didn't take analytic geometry. People in his day would look at spatial dimensions based on how they would measure them, not on a coordinate system. They could measure length all at once, and width all at once. But, height they would measure from ground/water surface level up, and depth from ground/water surface level down. Combining height and depth ...


15

Examining the Text The Greek text gives a fairly clear clue as to what is being referred to (its just one's theology that tends to get in the way of seeing it). There is a textual variant here, but it is not relevant to the discussion. The variant is found in the majority text and will be noted here by asterisks, like so: *τῆς*. Since the article follows a ...


14

Unlike English, Greek is a heavily (or highly) inflected language.1 In English, one could say/write, “One Lord, one faith, one baptism,” and the adjective “one” does not change spelling according to the noun it modifies. Footnotes         1 Chadwick, Ch. 4, p. 35 However, in Greek, the typical adjective will decline2 according to:3 Footnotes         2 To ...


11

All the words for "one" are different declensions of the same word (εἷς, μία, ἕν in the lexicon). It is declined to match the noun it modifies. ἓν - is nominative neuter singular μιᾷ - is dative feminine sigular (in a prepositional phrase) εἷς - is nominative masculine singular μία - is nominative feminine sigular There are sites like the following ...


10

OLD TESTAMENT USAGE: The word "poiema" us used only twice in the New Testament, as you say. But in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the same word is used several times: 1Sam. 8:8 According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt, even to this day—with which they have forsaken Me and served other ...


10

The verse: πρὸς ὃ δύνασθε ἀναγινώσκοντες νοῆσαι τὴν σύνεσίν μου ἐν τῷ μυστηρίῳ τοῦ Χριστοῦ. When you read this, you can perceive my insight into the mystery of Christ.(ESV) [With reference] to which, reading, you are able to know...(my overly literal rendition) Indeed, ὃ is the object of the preposition. That’s a relative pronoun, here declined ...


9

Although Paul does not use the same word for 'abolish' as Jesus in Matthew 5:17, I think it helpful to bear that verse in mind, as Paul did not intend to contradict what Jesus says: 17“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. 18For truly, I say to you, until heaven and earth ...


8

Marriage isn't 50-50. It's both parties giving 100%. Dr. Emerson Eggerichs addresses the differences in the commands extensively in his book Love and Respect and on his website, most recently in a September 4 blogpost. This verse doesn't mean that women don't have to love and men don't have to be subject to their wives. Paul was giving instructions about ...


8

This is quintessential Hebrew idiom based on multiple hyperbole. Paul is trying to convey the matchless riches of God's love and grace and struggles to find words to express it. He uses three metaphors: a tree "rooted and grounded in love", ie, firmly anchored and convinced of God's love size/magnitude, "breadth and length and height and ...


7

When Paul wrote to the Christians in Ephesus, the city was second in importance only to Rome. At that time the Greeks and the Romans held a very high opinion of themselves as warriors, athletes and intellectuals. There was a stone image to the goddess Nike in Ephesus - the winged goddess of victory, both in war and in peaceful competition. There were three ...


6

Update: I've left my original two opening paragraphs here (slightly modified for contextual clarity) because I still believe in general they are true when it comes to resolving highly disputed variants in the text. Often the reason they are highly disputed is because the extant textual witness cannot answer which variation is correct in a straightforward ...


6

The participle translated by the NIV here as 'who' is the Greek word ὅ, which is extraordinarily common and possesses a wide variety of meanings in English. The word is most commonly rendered as 'which' or 'who/whom', and does not by itself indicate whether it's referring to a personal or impersonal subject - we must rely on context for that. So no, this ...


6

This is due to the difference between the Critical or Minority Text and the Received Text (also known as the Textus Receptus) in this verse. The Critical Text has φωτος (photos) which means "light," whereas the Received Text and also the Majority or Byzantine Text both have πνευματος (pneumatos) which means "spirit." The NASB is based on the Critical Text ...


6

And ye became followers of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost: [1 Thessalonians 1:6 KJV] The joy with which the followers received the word was joy 'of the Holy Spirit'. Therefore the Holy Spirit himself knows joy. Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should ...


6

Here's the same issue with the temple: 27 “But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Behold, heaven and the highest heaven cannot contain you; how much less this house that I have built! 28 Yet have regard to the prayer of your servant and to his plea, O LORD my God, listening to the cry and to the prayer that your servant prays before you this day, 29 that ...


6

Exactly the same question could be asked of other instances where we meet the same idea. Luke 1:17 - And he will go on before the Lord, in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the parents to their children and the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous--to make ready a people prepared for the Lord." 2 Kings 2:15 - The company of ...


6

Ephesians 6:12 For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world forces of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places Paul's emphasis here is not the ...


6

The operative word here is μεθοδεία (methodeia) from which come our English word "method". It is a rare NT word only occurring in Eph 4:14, 6:11. Eph 4:14 - Then we will no longer be infants, tossed about by the waves and carried around by every wind of teaching and by the clever cunning of men in their deceitful scheming. Eph 6:11 - Put on the ...


5

There are two reasons why it is highly unlikely that the datives here are instrumental: 1) The verb αποκαλύπτω takes a direct and indirect object as you say, making a suitable nearby dative likely to be the indirect object. 2) The ἐν πνεύματι which immediately follows the datives is in itself a (prepositional) instrumental. It would be very strange to have ...


5

Apollos 24 Now a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, came to Ephesus. He was an eloquent man, competent in the Scriptures. 25 He had been instructed in the way of the Lord. And being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, though he knew only the baptism of John. 26 He began to speak boldly in the synagogue, but ...


4

A "correct" interpretation depends in large part on one's assumptions (or presuppositions). A covenant theologian might presuppose the Church (i.e., the "holy Catholic--or universal--and apostolic church" began in Abraham's tent, whereas a theologian of a different stripe might presuppose the Church was yet future, as Christ seems to ...


4

There are four instances of the Present Imperative (Second Person Plural) in the Epistle to the Ephesians where there is ambiguity between the middle and passive voice, because the literal grammatical verb form is identical. (Please click here for more examples in the New Testament.) In the Epistle to the Ephesians, every single one of these four verbs is in ...


4

The mystery is Christ and our mystical union to him. Hodge pretty much answers the question as simply as possible: Τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο μεγα ἐστίν, this mystery is great. The word mystery does not refer to the passage in Gen. 2:24, as though the apostle intended to say that that passage had a mystical sense which he had just unfolded by applying it to ...


4

1. Question Restatement: In Eph. 4:8, Why does Paul translate Ps 68:18 ("to Take") - using the exact opposite term: ἔδωκεν ("to Give")? In Psalms 68:18, לָקַ֣חְתָּ is translated into Greek, as: ἔλαβες, ("to take"): LXX, Ps 68:18 - You have ascended on high. You have led away captives. You have received gifts [taken gifts, ἔλαβες δόματα] - among men [ἐν ...


4

Short Answer: We can be fairly certain this is just saying that before Jesus could go back up to heaven, He first had to go down to the earth, which is lower. The variants There are two major textual variants in this verse listed by the UBS4, and they shed some light on what is going on here. 1) A large number of later sources added "first" so that it ...


4

Prolegomena The question assumes Pauline authorship, a point on which scholars are divided.1 It must be noted that I do not take Paul to be the author of Ephesians—I regard this epistle as pseudonymous. This is important for understanding the approach I will present because it begins with the observation that the author of Ephesians modeled this ...


4

Clues from the Immediate Context of the Verse Itself In Eph 2:2, this "ruler" (τὸν ἄρχοντα) is clarified as to what he rules over. This clarification comes, as is common with this word, in the form of a genitive case noun.1 However, there is a series of four genitives that follow: "the authority" (τῆς ἐξουσίας) "the air" (τοῦ ἀέρος) "the spirit" (τοῦ ...


4

Ambrosiaster, a 4th century commentator whose identity is somewhat mysterious, was commenting on the Latin version and not the Greek version of the text, but I think his explanation is still relevant: The Holy Spirit rejoices in our salvation not for himself, since he has no lack of blessedness. But if we have disobeyed the Spirit, we have grieved the ...


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