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22

Interestingly, despite there being several good answers here, no one has yet raised the possibility that the word ראם (re'em) refers to an animal known as the aurochs or urus (Bos primigenius). (Edit: Bruce James' answer does say "the ראם is a type of cow", which would be consistent with the aurochs conclusion.) Around the turn of the twentieth century (i....


19

Since the Book of Psalms was written in Hebrew, let's look at what Hebrew language and Bible scholars say on the subject. Specifically with regards to Psalm 22:21 (verse 22 in some Bibles), it says: "Save me from the lion's mouth; yea, from the horns of the רמים[plural version; pronounced "reymim"]." This is an animal that appears elsewhere in the ...


16

עִמָּֽךְ contains the pausal form of the 2nd person, masculine gender, singular number (2ms) pronominal suffix. This form is identical to the 2nd person, feminine gender, singular number (2fs) pronominal suffix in appearance (spelling). Robert Ray Ellis wrote,1 When you examine the cantillation marks of Psa. 139:18, you will see a sof pasuk or silluk at ...


16

In Hebrew Gematria, the number 26 = YHVH ( יְהֹוָ֣ה). The sum of the Name "YHVH" ( יְהֹוָ֣ה) = "Yod"(10) + "Hei"(5) + "Vav"(6) + "Hei"(5).


15

This question was just asked over at the Judaism site, so I'll repost my answer from there here. In general it is difficult to find pre-Christian rabbinic commentary, since the earliest rabbinic commentaries began coalescing around the end of the Second Temple period, in the first century CE. So while early midrashic collections like the Sifra and Mekhilta ...


13

Interesting - the relevant bit of Psalm 23:4 is: גַּם כִּי־אֵלֵךְ בְּגֵיא צַלְמָוֶת gam kî-ʾēlēk bĕgêʾ ṣalmāwet As Briggs & Briggs translate, "Yea, when I walk in a gloomy ravine..." The preposition bĕ- has its basic meaning as "in" (in Brown-Driver-Briggs, and Driver did the "bĕ-" entry). The meaning "through" isn't listed, although it is by far ...


11

Not a Hyperbolic Expression The Text of Psalm 51:4: לְךָ לְבַדְּךָ ׀ חָטָאתִי וְהָרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ עָשִׂיתִי לְמַעַן תִּצְדַּק בְּדָבְרֶךָ תִּזְכֶּה בְשָׁפְטֶֽךָ׃ Explanation 1) "Against you alone" (לְךָ לְבַדְּךָ): This is a prayer of David for repentance (a penitential psalm), and while he sinned against many others in the affair with Bathsheba, ...


11

Is the first image of Psalm 29:9 one pertaining to flora (e.g. NET's "trees"), or fauna (e.g., ESV's "deer")? Good question! The Septuagint took the key word as "deer" (ἔλαφος) here, and the KJV, and those deriving from it (essentially the "Revised" version descendents) have taken it as a "fauna" image, too, thus KJV: The voice of the LORD maketh the ...


10

Unicorn is a correct translation. Noah Webster's 1828 dictionary says that a unicorn is a rhinoceros, and a rhinoceros is a unicorn. The Latin Vulgate says "rinocerotis" in Deut 33:17 and "rinoceros" in Job 39:9. The King James says "Or Rhinocerots" in the marginal note in Isaiah 34:7. Even scientists today use the word unicorn in reference to the one-...


10

I asked about this question at the Judaism.SE site and was told that it is difficult to find pre-Christian Rabbinic sources. It seems that the current understanding of Psalm 22 within Judaism deals with the plight of the Jewish Nation in Exile.1 However, Rashi's 11th-century commentary states that Our Sages, however, interpreted it [(ayeleth hashachar, ...


10

David E. Malick writes: This division seems to be older than the oldest extant manuscripts of the Psalms since it exists in all manuscripts. The order of the last two books (IV and V) do differ in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls suggesting that their final order was not canonized until around the time of Christ. But all of the Psalms remain present (The LXX ...


10

While reading links to add to this question, I ran across Gesenius’ explanation (§129 c.), which seems to be too much of an answer to incorporate into the question. I therefore offer it as an answer, although I have a sense that it’s up for disputing, and I’d love to see other answers incorporating more recent scholarship. Gesenius labels this lamed ...


9

It seems likely that Ps 72:20, "The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended", refers to the completion of an early collection of Davidic psalms. The evidence does not really fit together seamlessly, but still converges on this conclusion. The text reads: כָּלּוּ תְפִלּוֹת דָּוִד בֶּן־יִשָׁי kālû tĕphillôt dāwīd ben yišāy1 (1) Ps 72:20 follows a "...


9

This is proof-positive of Greek primacy of the Old Testament Here are the facts: 13 is an unlucky number. It is terribly unlucky to have a camel on your back. In the Septuagint, the Psalms are numbered differently (and correctly) so that the psalm in question is #12. 12 is a lucky number. 6 is half as lucky. 12:6 is one and a half lucky. In Greek, the ...


9

It is true that all Jewish prayerbooks and scriptural resources exclude a "nun" line in Psalm 145. It is also true that the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Bible read by Greek-speaking Jews and Christians, the Peshitta – the translation used by the Syrian church, and one of the Dead Sea Scrolls’ Psalms texts, presumably used by members of the ...


9

Paul made a direct word-for-word quote not from Psalm 37:8, but from the Septuagint of Psalm 4:4 - ...ὀργίζεσθε καὶ μὴ ἁμαρτάνετε... In the Hebrew of Psalm 4:4, the verb for "anger" is רָגַז which has the connotation of perturbing, or being perturbed. In the 41 instances that this verb occurs in the Hebrew Bible in various conjugations and tenses, the ...


9

First off -- what an amazing psalm! I think it's important never to forget the greatness of the literature we're digging into when we (rightly!) ask our carefully focussed and technical questions. When we've arrived at our answer (if we can), our appreciation ought to be enhanced and deepened. And sorry: I meant this to be a quick one. Three questions here,...


9

The Douay-Rheims version is a translation of the Vulgate. The Vulgate to Psalms seems to have gone through multiple revisions. I looked through all the versions I could find easily and found these translations of the word in question: Dei caeli, God of heaven (Romanum, Gallicanum, Clementine) Domini, Lord (Hebraica) Omnipotentis, Almighty (Pianum, New ...


8

hekal(הֵיכָל) means 'palace' or 'temple'. It is used to refer to the Solomon's Temple but also (for example) the house at Shiloh in David's time, here in 1 Samuel 1:9 After they had eaten and drunk in Shiloh, Hannah rose. Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat beside the doorpost of the temple of the Lord. ESV Among other usages, it can also refer to ...


8

In Romans 3:4 Paul does the same kind of verb change. That is, he modifies the meaning of a verb from the Old Testament while quoting every other word verbatim from the Old Testament verses in question. So to use the example of Romans 3:4 we see that Paul is quoting from Psalm 51:4 saying, "...and prevail when you are judged." But the same verse in the ...


8

A supplement to Mark Edward's answer: Though "strength" and "praise" are two very different words, the "strength" in Ps 8 in the Hebrew text comes from "mouths", and the psalm is about praising God. It is not a stretch to think that the psalm talks about praise from the infants' mouths. Moreover, the New Testament seldom quotes the Old Testament word for ...


8

While Matthew 5:5 echoes Psalm 37:11, it's not obvious that they have the same horizons, so I will take them one at a time and then offer a summary. Psalm 37:11 A canonical reading of Psalm 37:11 places the verse in the context of a number of Psalms about David (essentially 3-41). Psalm 37 itself is marked as "Of David" indicating that the primary ...


8

The Idea in Brief The Hebrew verb to pierce (כָּרָה = H3738) in Psalm 40:6 is the same triliteral root for the Hebrew verb to prepare (כָּרָה = H3739). For example, this second verb (כָּרָה = H3739) appears translated in 2 Ki 6:23 as "prepared." In other words, both verbs have the exact same triliteral root, but have different meanings. The LXX translators ...


8

Although my initial reaction to this question was (not unlike the response in another answer here) that obviously this day-of-the-week superscription (DWS) reflects the Jewish liturgical background of the translator, this conclusion depends on several assumptions: The phrase "τῆς μιᾶς σαββάτων" is original to the Old Greek translation of the Psalms ("LXX")....


8

This verse is a challenge to read in the original and more so to translate. The MT for Psalm 139:14 is: אוֹדְךָ֗ עַ֤ל כִּ֥י נֽוֹרָא֗וֹת נִ֫פְלֵ֥יתִי נִפְלָאִ֥ים מַעֲשֶׂ֑יךָ וְ֝נַפְשִׁ֗י יֹדַ֥עַת מְאֹֽד The verse is built around alliterations on two pairs of closely related consonants, א ("o" or "a", closed glottal with not vocalization) ...


7

My understanding of the Psalm is that it is prayer of David, with the "of Solomon" in the Psalm's title meaning the Psalm is concerning Solomon, rather than authored by Solomon. The content of the Psalms supports this - it is the prayers of David for his son, prophesying what his son should do, and will do as king. This leads us to the epilogue in verse 20: ...


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