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If the Greek LXX version of Isaiah 28 was studied by Peter, Why does the apostle Peter misquote Isaiah 28:16 in [1 Peter 2:6]?

[1 Peter 2:6, LXX]

“Ἰδού, [τίθημι ἐν] Σιὼν λίθον [?] ἀκρογωνιαῖον ἐκλεκτὸν ἔντιμον [?] καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ”

[Isaiah 28:16, LXX]

“ἰδοὺ [ἐγὼ ἐμβαλῶ εἰς τὰ θεμέλια] Σιων λίθον [πολυτελῆ ἐκλεκτὸν] ἀκρογωνιαῗον ἔντιμον [εἰς τὰ θεμέλια αὐτῆς] καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ”
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    What difference are you alluding to - both appear quite similar to me.
    – Dottard
    Nov 22 '21 at 9:37
  • @Dottard - the difference was [bracketed] to illustrate & ask why Peter did not cite LXX Isaiah exactly if he used the LXX to study messianic verses of Tanakh. Nov 22 '21 at 10:40
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Isaiah 28:16
ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἐμβαλῶ εἰς τὰ θεμέλια Σιὼν λίθον πολυτελῆ ἐκλεκτὸν ἀκρογωνιαῖον, ἔντιμον,
εἰς τὰ θεμέλια αὐτῆς,
καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ’ αὐτῷ οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ.

1 Peter 2:6
Ἰδοὺ τίθημι ἐν Σιὼν λίθον ἀκρογωνιαῖον, ἐκλεκτόν, ἔντιμον
καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ.

Unless I'm missing something, there does not seem to be any relevant or meaningful difference between the two Greek renderings; nevertheless, both differ substantially from the Hebrew Masoretic: perhaps this is what you were trying to ask all along ? If so, then update your question, and I'll update my answer.

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  • I agree - good summary +1.
    – Dottard
    Nov 22 '21 at 9:37
  • @Lucian - Would Peter not quote the exact words of LXX Isaiah if he actually used that edition to study? | The MT does not matter for Peter, since LXX was supposedly what he used to reference messianic verses. Nov 22 '21 at 10:29
  • @חִידָה: Studying something, and reciting it by heart, are two different things. The human brain is not a tape recorder. I also studied engineering in college; that does not mean I recite my old manuals by heart. Before printing, only numerous communities, or rich individuals, could own copies of large books, because they were highly expensive luxury objects. As such, ancient and medieval writers could not easily access various works of literature at will.
    – Lucian
    Nov 22 '21 at 10:43
  • @Lucian - Peter was not citing the entire scroll of LXX Isaiah. Verse 16 of chapter 28 is not long or hard to memorize, and if it helped him learn about his Messiah - Why would he not revere the words as a prophecy? Nov 22 '21 at 10:56
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    @חִידָה: In order for someone to cite a sentence from a book, one has to have access to the entire book, since verses and sentences were not written individually, on small pieces of paper, like those found inside Chinese fortune cookies. Also, Peter's letter quotes many verses from the Old Testament; when added together, they amount to a lot of text.
    – Lucian
    Nov 22 '21 at 11:19
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Note the textual variation in the Dead Sea Isaiah scroll.

16 a 𝔔a מיסד 𝔔b יוסד α´σ´θ´ (𝔖𝔗) θεμελιῶν cf 𝔊𝔙, l יֹסֵד || b > pc Mss 𝔊, dl -- Weil, G. E., Elliger, K., & Rudolph, W., Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. (1997). Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (5. Aufl., rev., p. 715). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.

A translation of the Hebrew:

         therefore thus says the Lord GOD, 
              “Behold, I am the one who has laid as a foundation in Zion, 
  a stone, a tested stone, 
              a precious cornerstone, of a sure foundation: 
  ‘Whoever believes will not be in haste.’ 
                 (Isa. 28:16, ESV)

A translation of the Greek:

For it stands in Scripture:

              “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, 
  a cornerstone chosen and precious, 
              and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.” 
                        (1 Pet. 2:6, ESV)

The main variation in meaning is between καταισχυνθῇ and יָחִֽישׁ. Both the New Testament and LXX have καταισχυνθῇ.

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