Does “resurrection of judgment” imply bodily resurrection at all (Jn. 5:28-29)?
Short Answer: Not necessarily (although likely based on 1 Cor. 15:52).
Perhaps we should first differentiate between the human spirit and the human body because a great deal of confusion arises when discussing the death of the body. Each and every one of us is destined to physically return to the dust of the ground:
Genesis 3:19: "By the sweat of your face You will eat bread, Till you return to the ground, Because from it you were taken; For you are dust, And to dust you shall return."
God pronounced a universal curse on all humanity. Surprisingly, many seem to believe that we will forever retain our current physical form upon our transcendence into heaven. But that is unbiblical, just as the verse above demonstrates. We will all return to dust.
However, this is not true of our spiritual makeup — our mind and consciousness, our "inner person" as described by the apostle Paul:
2 Corinthians 4:16: "Therefore we do not lose heart, but though our outer man [physical body] is decaying [and will die], yet our inner man [our spirit] is being renewed day by day" (emphasis added).
In the New Testament, we are told that the saved will receive imperishable, immortal bodies (1 Cor. 15:53, 1 Pet. 1:4, 23, etc.). Let us review the passage in question by the OP:
John 5:28-29: "Do not marvel at this; for an hour is coming, in which all who are in the tombs will hear His voice, 29and will come forth; those who did the good deeds to a resurrection of life, those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of judgment" (emphasis added).
Resurrection to life is the same as Paul describes elsewhere, a real, immortal, spiritual resurrection (however we interpret that):
1 Corinthians 15:50-53: "Now I say this, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 51Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, 52in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 53For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality."
Suppose we break down what Paul has said:
1. Flesh and blood, our current form, cannot inherit spiritual life.
2. Flesh and blood is perishable: it decays and will return to the dust.
Note that the spirit, our intellectual being, does not do this.
3. The saved ("we" vs. 51) will all be changed at death and raised imperishable.
4. Our current, perishable constitution must put on an imperishable, immortal body.
There is a hint here, that the lost (those lost forever, separated from God) might also receive immortal bodies. In verse 52, Paul does not appear to distinguish between the saved and the lost when he writes, "the dead will be raised imperishable, and we [the saved] will be changed." Notice that the apostle refers to those "raised imperishable and we will be changed".
If we are to understand anything, we need to understand this: "the dead" are those who physically perished (all of us eventually). Our spirit does not reside in a grave because that is death, and is a direct contradiction to Christ's promise:
John 8:51: "[If] anyone keeps My word he will never see death" (emphasis added).
John 11:26: "[Everyone] who lives and believes in Me will never die” (emphasis added).
Scripture often refers to those who have physically died as having "fallen asleep". The following passages are only a fraction of the many describing death as "sleep":
Matthew 27:52 Luke 8:52 1 Thessalonians 4:13-15, 5:10
Acts 7:60, 13:36 2 Peter 3:4 1 Corinthians 15:6, 18, 20, 51
Daniel 12:2, 13 Psalm 13:3 Isaiah 26:19
Why does Scripture do this? Because our physical body is biblically referred to as "tent," or "vessel," or "dwelling," or any number of other terms used to portray the body as a temporary receptacle for our spirit. God is not as concerned about the outcome of our physical makeup — but He is intensely interested in our spiritual being!
Perhaps it might be helpful to think of what it means to be separated from God eternally. Elsewhere, we have determined that our "goodness" — all of it, comes from God. Without that goodness, Christ describes our wretched condition in the Gospel of Mark:
Mark 7:21-22: "For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed the evil thoughts, fornications, thefts, murders, adulteries, 22deeds of coveting and wickedness, as well as deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride and foolishness."
If that isn't enough, suppose we consider that which is written in the Letter to the Romans:
Romans 1:29-31: "[The godless,] being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips, 30slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful;"
If God has withdrawn all goodness from us at death, precisely what remains of who we once were based on Mark and Romans? Is this not as close a description as we ever find of a demon — a being without the slightest redeeming qualities at all? This may be exactly what we all are without the goodness of God, rather than the "nice people" we generally tend to think we are.
Now, if such an ugly creature does receive an immortal body, it must last throughout eternity in the flames of Hell. It must somehow be able to endure unfathomable torture in that unspeakable realm of horror. Without question, it must be a spiritual body to do this.
Perhaps we cannot know if the lost receive immortal bodies based on John 5:28-29. However, 1 Corinthians 15:52 does seem to imply that they do. Whether it is imperishable as well seems hard to say, but it will be defiled on a scale beyond human imagination in any case!