Both the OT and the NT make it very clear that, among other things, Jesus had to be (humanly speaking) a descendant of King David.
- According to the Davidic/Royal Covenant
- 2 Sam 7:12, 13 - And when your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom. He will build a house for My Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.
- Isa 9:7 - Of the increase of His government and peace there will be no end. He will reign on the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish and sustain it with justice and righteousness from that time and forevermore.
- Jer 23:3-6 - Then I Myself will gather the remnant of My flock from all the lands to which I have banished them, and I will return them to their pasture, where they will be fruitful and multiply. I will raise up shepherds over them who will tend them, and they will no longer be afraid or dismayed, nor will any go missing, declares the LORD. Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, and He will reign wisely as King and will administer justice and righteousness in the land. In His days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is His name by which He will be called: The LORD Our Righteousness. See also Jer 33:15, 16 for the same prophecy.
- Zech 9:9-13 - Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion! Shout in triumph, O Daughter of Jerusalem! See, your King comes to you, righteous and victorious, humble and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.
- In the NT we have the following:
- Matt 1:1-17 - Matthew proves that Jesus was the descendent of King David
- Luke 3:23-38 - Luke proves that Jesus was the descendent of King David
- Luke 1:32, 33 – [Jesus] will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David, and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever. His kingdom will never end!”
- Rom 1:3 - regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David,
- John 1:49 - “Rabbi,” Nathanael answered, “You are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!” See also Mark 11:7-11.
- Mark 11:1-11 - Jesus triumphal entry to Jerusalem was on the basis that He was fulfilling the ancient prophecies about re-establishing the throne of David as Messiah (V10). See also Matt 21:5, Luke 19:38, John 12:13-15, etc.
- Matt 22:42 - even the Pharisees knew that Messiah had to be the Son of David
- Jesus was well-known and often called, "The Son of David", Mark 10:47, 48, Matt 9:27, 12:23, 15:22, 20:31, Luke 18:38, etc.
There are numerous other things that Jesus had to fulfill in order to be Messiah such as being born in Bethlehem, being crucified, etc. However, one of these requirements is definitely being the "Son of David".
Specifically, in the Gospels of Mark and John, people admit that Messiah had to be the Son of David:
- John 7:42 - Doesn’t the Scripture say that the Christ will come from the line of David and from Bethlehem, the village where David lived?”
- John 1:45 - Jesus was known to be the son of Joseph who was, in turn, known to be of the line of David, Matt 1:20, Luke 2:4.
- Mark 12:35 is an allusion to Ps 110 which calls the (then) future Messiah "Lord" of David. So how can David's "Lord" be David's son? This question was used by Jesus to confound the Pharisees. The only way this could occur is if Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit (Luke 1:35), and thus God as well as a human descendent of David. Thus, Mary is also called, "the mother of my Lord", Luke 1:43.