Psalm 95 is a "kingship Psalm (see v. 3 the great king), which, after an introductory call to worship (vv. 1-3) focuses on God as creator of the world (vv. 4-5) and creator of Israel (vv. 6-7). Just as human kings were responsible for major building projects, God as king has created the world and Israel."
1It ends with a rebuke not to have harden hearts as the Israelites had in the Exodus.
The writer of Hebrews uses the rebuke in Psalm 95 three times to begin Chapter 4:
1 Therefore, while the promise of entering his rest still stands, let us fear lest any of you should seem to have failed to reach it. 2 For good news came to us just as to them, but the message they heard did not benefit them, because they were not united by faith with those who listened. 3 For we who have believed enter that rest, as he has said, “As I swore in my wrath, ‘They shall not enter my rest,’” although his works were finished from the foundation of the world. 4 For he has somewhere spoken of the seventh day in this way: “And God rested on the seventh day from all his works.” 5 And again in this passage he said, “They shall not enter my rest.” 6 Since therefore it remains for some to enter it, and those who formerly received the good news failed to enter because of disobedience, 7 again he appoints a certain day, “Today,” saying through David so long afterward, in the words already quoted, “Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts.” 8 For if Joshua had given them rest, God[b] would not have spoken of another day later on. 9 So then, there remains a Sabbath rest for the people of God, 10 for whoever has entered God's rest has also rested from his works as God did from his. (ESV)
[b] Hebrews 4:8 Greek he
The ESV translator note highlights a difficulty in verse 8: if Joshua had given them rest he [Joshua] would not have have spoken of another day does not make sense since God speaks. Therefore, the ESV translates ἐλάλει, he spoke, as God, not Joshua.
However, "Joshua" is Ἰησοῦς, which is understood as Jesus everywhere else in the letter and a literal translation is possible:
For if Jesus had brought them into rest, he would not have spoken afterwards about another day. (Darby)
εἰ γὰρ αὐτοὺς Ἰησοῦς κατέπαυσεν οὐκ ἂν περὶ ἄλλης ἐλάλει μετὰ ταῦτα ἡμέρας
By using Ἰησοῦς (Jesus/Joshua) and ἐλάλει (he would have spoken), the writer has constructed a text which literally means it was Jesus who led them and Jesus who spoke. Moreover, if the writer intended Ἰησοῦς to be understood as Joshua, they could have used Αυση, his name before Moses changed it, or by clarifying and using "the son of Nun:"
These are the names of the men who Moyses sent to spy out the land. And Moses named Hause son of Naue, Iesous. (LXX-Numbers 13:16)
ταῦτα τὰ ὀνόματα τῶν ἀνδρῶν, οὓς ἀπέστειλεν Μωυσῆς κατασκέψασθαι τὴν γῆν. καὶ ἐπωνόμασεν Μωυσῆς τὸν Αυση υἱὸν Ναυη ᾿Ιησοῦν
Does the writer of Hebrews use Psalm 95 as a way to show they believe Jesus was present and spoke during the Exodus?
1. Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 1389