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In Exodus 19:13 (NASB)

(...) When the ram’s horn sounds a long blast, they shall come up to the mountain.”

Who produced the trumpet sound?

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    Joshua was to sound the ram's horn. - Both Joshua & Moses ascended the mountain in Exodus 24:13. Moses descends with two heavy stone tablets, leaving Joshua to gather Israel with a shofar sound to hear God's commandments. – חִידָה Jan 25 at 20:44
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It seems to be a miraculous event among other miraculous events.

Exodus 19:10 And the Lord said to Moses, “Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow. Have them wash their clothes 11and be ready by the third day, because on that day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people.

It is an extraordinary day.

12 Put limits for the people around the mountain and tell them, ‘Be careful that you do not approach the mountain or touch the foot of it. Whoever touches the mountain is to be put to death. 13They are to be stoned or shot with arrows; not a hand is to be laid on them. No person or animal shall be permitted to live.’ Only when the ram’s horn sounds a long blast may they approach the mountain.”

No actor is mentioned. No words from God or Moses is mentioned. The timing seems like a miraculous signal from God.

14 After Moses had gone down the mountain to the people, he consecrated them, and they washed their clothes. 15Then he said to the people, “Prepare yourselves for the third day. Abstain from sexual relations.”

They are ready for a sequence of miracles.

16 On the morning of the third day there was thunder and lightning, with a thick cloud over the mountain, and a very loud trumpet blast. Everyone in the camp trembled. 17Then Moses led the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. 18Mount Sinai was covered with smoke, because the Lord descended on it in fire. The smoke billowed up from it like smoke from a furnace, and the whole mountain trembled violently. 19As the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke and the voice of God answered him.

The mountain miraculously trembled violently as the sound of the trumpet grew miraculously louder and louder.

Who produces the sound?

God or perhaps his appointed angels. It was a crazy day of a supernatural show when God descended on Mount Sinai.

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At the establishment of the Israelite covenant at Mt Sinai in Ex 19-23, we have a series of clear divine miracles including:

  • V16 - thunder and lightning
  • V16 - a thick black cloud
  • V16 - (see also V13) - a long blast of the ram's horn (a trained musician can do this for perhaps 1 minute - but this obviously last much longer confirming the divine origin)
  • V18 - the mountain enveloped in smoke
  • V18 - the LORD descended in fire
  • V18 - mountain quaked violently
  • V19 - sound of the ram's horn continues and gets louder and louder

These series of spectacular supernatural events made a deep impression on the people because they constantly referred to them later such as Ex 24:17, Deut 4:11, 15, 5:4, 5, 22, 23, 9:10, 15, 10:4, Heb 12:18. (See also Rev 8:8, 10, 12, 9:1, 14). Other Scripture also discusses a loud trumpet blast from God, see Matt 24:31, 1 Cor 15:52, 1 Thess 4:16.

I see no reason to suggest that the very extended sound of the ram's horn that grew louder and louder was anything other than part of the supernatural display of God's glory to impress the people with the importance of what was about to occur - the giving of the covenant and law.

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