In several ways, there are some parallels between the subject matter of 2 Cor 5 and 1 Cor 5. Both discuss the moral state of the Christian Community at Corinth and both discuss the coming judgement. Both talk about those in the church that were both good and bad.
Greek uses pronouns rather sparingly and only for emphasis. In most cases the pronoun is implied by the verb. In this instance, the pronoun, "us" is explicit and used for emphasis. See 1 John 2:2 for another case where this occurs where the "us" or "our" is in contradistinction to the "world" (kosmos). Rom 14:10 contains an almost identical construction and sentiment.
Therefore, I believe that Paul is addressing the professing Christians in Corinth. However, this does not deny the New Testament teaching that ALL are subject to judgement for the deeds of the flesh, while the true believers do not come into judgement (John 5:24, 25), that is are not subject to executive judgement.