Firstly, the context of Joel's prophecy is the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians.
And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be those who escape, as the Lord has said, and among the survivors shall be those whom the Lord calls.—Joel 2:32 (ESV)
This means that the particular "day of judgment" had already passed by the time Peter quoted the prophet. The New Testament writers always quote the Old Testament "covenantally," that is, the way God redeemed and avenged at such-and-such a time is being re-enacted now. The reference in Hebrews to Jeremiah concerning "a new covenant" is similar. In Jeremiah, the new covenant would re-unite Judah and Israel, north and south. The author of Hebrews is using the previous national "death-and-resurrection" to illustrate the international one which was occurring in his day, that is, the reunion of Jew and Gentile into one body.
Secondly, blood and fire and smoke are all sacrificial references. These are things that take place on the "Land" (not the earth) because the Land throughout the Old Testament is a flat, four-cornered altar. The obedient offering of the firstfruits (such as Isaac) would allow the will of God to be done on earth as it was in heaven. We see this on Mount Carmel, where Elijah's holy sacrificial model of Israel (a twelve stone altar) calls down fire from heaven, and the entire mountain becomes a new Sinai, with the false priests slain and God vindicated. The Tabernacle was a model of Sinai, with the Bronze Altar as the raised earth, and the furnitures in the Holy Place signified the sacrificial blood (the Table), the fire (the Lampstand) and the fragrant savory smoke (the Incense Altar). The fragrant smoke was pleasing to God, a "legal witness" that the Law had been satisfied.
In the first century, the death of Christ was the offering of blood. Pentecost was the "holy fire" coming down from heaven, and the testimony of the apostles to an apostate Jerusalem and to the surrounding Gentiles was the savory smoke, after which came God's blessings and curses upon the Jews for all time in AD70.
In the Jewish war, as on Carmel, the liturgical model of Christian worship brought down the "days of vengeance." Jerusalem herself was laid upon the altar, the entire Land covered in blood. As she was under Babylon due to her harlotries, idolatries, sorceries and abominations, so she would be under Rome, whom God would bring against her. At Pentecost, it seems the glory of God began to leave the Temple. It was unprotected against invasion and plunder by Gentiles.
This is why the Revelation is a sacrificial liturgy. It is the last sacrifice of the Old Testament: Israel herself. The believers ascended as smoke (the ascension offering in Leviticus 1, the true Isaacs, sons of Abraham by faith) and the unbelievers were swallowed by the Land, descending into the earth, the Altar, as ashes, Adamic dust, like the false priests, the sons of Korah. The Altar was then split in two (symbolically under the feet of Christ) and the ashes poured out. All these allusions help us to understand what is going on. To refuse to understand the Bible on its own terms (with its constant sacrificial/liturgical models) is to refuse to take it as it was intended.
Finally, the "last days" in the New Testament always refer to the last days of the Old Covenant, not the last days of the New.