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Questions about Jewish history, practices, culture, and beliefs between the return from Babylonian captivity and the destruction of the temple by Titus.

Second temple Judaism refers to the time period from roughly the late 6th century BC when some of the Jews returned from Babylonian captivity by decree of King Cyrus of Persia (and began the work of rebuilding Jerusalem and the construction of a temple), until Titus destroyed Jerusalem and its temple in AD 70.

Strictly speaking, during the earliest portion of this interval there was not an operating temple in Jerusalem--it was being planned and built.

The temple was also remodeled during the second temple era, the most extensive renovation and expansion beginning under Herod the Great.