14

The "Masoretic Text" of the Hebrew Bible includes as part of its "mark up" a set of marginal readings known to the Torah scholars who transmitted the text in that form. These variants are known as "ketiv and qere" readings (see also M. Graves, "The Origins of Ketiv-Qere Readings"): ketiv = what is "written" (ketiv), and appears in the text itself; qere = ...


13

There are plenty of web sites that will give you comparatives, however, my broad take on the subject is that the LXX is not generally speaking considered more authoritative than any Hebrew text. The translators were not especially careful (though certainly not sloppy.) The amount of textual variants in the Hebrew text are MUCH smaller than in the Greek, for ...


10

The Idea in Brief The editorial dots in the text appear to indicate that Esau's kissing was insincere. Discussion One of the most remarkable resources available today for studying the Masoretic Text is the Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah by the late Professor Israel Yeivin. This handbook provides an excellent primer for understanding the details and ...


10

The question as posed has done pretty much all the "homework" already! Here is how they look in Codex Leningrad: In the scholarly literature, a fairly authoritative answer comes from Israel Yeivin's discussion in Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah (Scholars Press, 1985), § 81 (pp. 46-7) as well as Emanuel Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (Van ...


9

It is true that all Jewish prayerbooks and scriptural resources exclude a "nun" line in Psalm 145. It is also true that the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Bible read by Greek-speaking Jews and Christians, the Peshitta – the translation used by the Syrian church, and one of the Dead Sea Scrolls’ Psalms texts, presumably used by members of the ...


9

I don't usually do tl;dr summaries, but it seems it might help in this case... tl;dr summary OP Q: what the source of the Hebrew of those two verses [i.e., Josh 21:36-67]? A: the majority of Masoretic Hebrew manuscripts other than Leningradensis; see end of post for more details. In fact, the BHS itself provides the answer to the question, although in ...


8

The Dead Sea Scrolls are the only ancient Hebrew Bible manuscripts that we have. Everything else in Hebrew is from the 11th century or later. Thus it's natural that the Dead Sea Scrolls loom large in studying the textual history of the Hebrew Bible. However, the Dead Sea Scroll texts don't always agree with each other, and their age is no guarantee of ...


8

I think "which is more reliable" is too imprecise a question. There are situations where the Dead Sea scrolls agree with the MT against LXX and vice-versa, and in some cases there's just no way to know which version is older. One more precise question is how often are the Qumran manuscripts close to MT and how often are they close to LXX. Wikipedia says ...


8

Fraser Orr's answer is excellent and I only hope to supplement his excellent answer with a few thoughts regarding "reliability." When asking a question like this, it's important to state your purpose. Why are you asking this question? The logic is such that they have reliable uses and applications within their own domains and we need to know the domain in ...


8

It is commonly believed that Job's original 10 children are in Heaven. The texts do say that Job received a "twice as much", and that he had "more": Job 42:10 And the LORD turned the captivity of Job, when he prayed for his friends: also the LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before. Job 42:12 So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than ...


7

The books of the Septuagint (= LXX, here not the Septuagint "proper", which is limited to the Pentateuch, but the whole of the Jewish scriptures in Greek) were produced by different translators; the various books thus exhibit vastly different styles and approaches to the task. LXX-Proverbs is well known for being among the most "free" in making the Hebrew ...


7

The BHS of Jeremiah was edited by Wilhelm Rudolph, a distinguished Alttestamentler, and the author of several important commentaries -- among them, a commentary on Jeremiah. It was first published in 1958, with the last edition being the third which appeared in 1968. His BHS edition of Jeremiah was published in 1970. As OP notes, Rudolph suggests hayyôm ["...


6

This was taken from the Shabbat Tractate of the Babylonian Talmud(Mishna): The rabbis taught: Before the passage [Numb. x. 35]: "And it came to pass when the ark set forward, that Moses said, etc.," and at the close of the next verse, the Holy One, blessed be He, made signs (the inverted letter Nun, which must be inserted in the Scroll) in order to ...


5

This is too long for a comment on Keelan's helpful answer, so I offer it as a supplemental answer. The following items should also be noted: When Joüon-Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew (revised ed; Pontifical Biblical Institute, 2006) discuss the issue of vocalization of original *CVCC nouns (the "segolate" class), he (Muraoka) includes this comment (...


5

Various scholars (I'm using the Brill DSS book, but my guess is that this is found in the BHS apparatus as well, and see here - this was noted as early as Gill, see here) seem to understand this issue as arising from a difference in vowelization. θάνατος is the Greek translation used for Dever/דֶּבֶר (see, for example, LXX Exodus 9:3, and it is translated ...


5

The hebrew root שׁוף means 'to bruise, to strike or to crush'. The greek word τηρέω is able to translate as 'to watch carefully', but the indicative future like in Gen 3,15, it means 'to lie in ambush for someone'. If we translate τηρήσει with 'to lie in ambush for someone', we will get a similar meaning like the hebrew text, because emphasises the ...


4

The scribes at Qumran had there own scribal practices which were distinct from those practiced during the second Temple period, and in the subsequent period which saw the copying of the Temple scroll in Tiberius (1 of 3, the only to be returned by Rome to the Jews of this city in the Galilee), and eventually transmitted to us by Moses Ben Asher in the Masora....


4

Hannes, I am sorry this took so long for me to look into. While the Septuagint does use "your God," it is the only version I have found that does. Jerome's Vulgate uses "Ego Deus omnipotens" (I am God omnipotent). Likewise, of the three Targums I consulted, two had "God almighty" (Targum Pseudo Jonathan and the other is simply marked as Targumin from Hebrew ...


4

1. Question - Textual Criticism : Is there a Hebrew manuscript basis to include the missing "Nun" verse between Psalms 145:13 and Psalms 145:14? 2. Answer - The Dead Sea Scrolls - 11Q5 Psalms a : As in the Masoretic text, A "Nun" phrase does not appear in the Aleppo Codex, Western Leningrad Codex, or the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (...


4

The Idea in Brief The LXX speaks of two outcomes: one regarding the developed fetus and one undeveloped. The Masoretic Text however simply presents the fetuses in the plural, and in this respect there is no amplification or clarification between developed and undeveloped in the Masoretic Text. In summary, if the Masoretic Text carries the original literary ...


4

Well, this is a famous crux, and there have been a number of solutions, some more plausible than others. Michael Fox thinks that הָעֹלָם is a scribal error for עָמֵל (toil) which occurs two verses earlier. Here it would be not the usual toil but the mental toil (amal b'libam) of understanding one's place in the world. There's also a fairly common ...


4

tanakh.us has an option to remove the vocalisations: once you're viewing a passage, use the 'Content' dropdown to select the 'Consonants' option.


4

The Masoretic Text (MT) did not come into existence until some 700 years after the New Testament was written. As such, there is no possible way the New Testament writers could have anticipated differences between the Septuagint, which was available during their lifetime, and the Masoretic Text, which appeared long after they died. Even considering the ...


4

Background Since the written text in use at the time lacked the vowels found in the Masoretic Text (MT), the issue is primarily over how the consonants דבר are pronounced, either as דָּבָר (dabar) = speech, word, speaking, thing or as דֶּבֶר (deber) = pestilence, plague. According to the lexicon a proper word for dabar would be λόγος (logos) or ῥῆμα (rhema) ...


4

The Masoretic Text of the Hebrew has 1 Sam 10:27 as per most Bibles. A few Bibles such as NLT have decided to add some text based on 4QSam(a) from the dead sea scrolls. The text of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) also lacks this addition. This BHS text dates from about 1000 AD and is the basis of almost all modern Bibles. By contrast the text of ...


4

The Leningrad Codex indicates a Qere and Ketiv difference, with the written version being לא (he was not) and the vocalized version being לו (he was). The Great Isaiah Scroll in Jerusalem reads לוא with the ו looking more like a yod (י) which is common, but which any reader would understand to be a ו. This would likely indicate that the text intended the ...


3

BibleHub about 4/5 of the way down one page gives verses and says “(e) More than half of the direct quotations from the O.T. in the Epistles of St Paul are taken from the LXX. without material change…” “In other passages St Paul departs still further from the LXX, quoting freely...” BibleHub Quotations from the LXX Another entity, about 1/3 of the way ...


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