The Vulgate is the 4th century CE Latin translation of the Bible; adopted as the official biblical text of the Catholic church at the Council of Trent (1546).
Largely the work of Jerome, the Vulgate superseded older Latin translations. Jerome worked from Greek texts for the NT, and from Hebrew for the OT.
The Psalms represent a special case, however. Jerome's Latin version was first translated from the Septuagint, then revised (using, it seems, the text of the Hexapla), and finally translated from Hebrew. This last revision did not find favour, however, and the "revision", known as the Gallican Psalter, became the standard for the Vulgate, including its printed editions.