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37

Good question - could take a book to answer! The key phrase which unlocks (or veils?) identity is in v. 12: "O Lucifer, son of the morning!" Hebrew: הֵילֵ֣ל בֶּן־שָׁ֑חַר | hêlēl ben-šāḥar Greek: ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωὶ ἀνατέλλων | ho heōsphoros ho prōi anatellōn Grk trans.: the Day Star, which used to rise early in the morning And, important in a moment, ...


14

Short Answer: No. This is a great question, and I'm glad you asked it. This verse is often used by Christian apologists to show that the Bible was ahead of its times in its scientific claims. While this sounds convincing to modern readers of English translations, it is a very poor argument to use. Exhibit A: The word "stretch" To many, the idea of God "...


14

The Idea in Brief The best translation in this passage is not “Lucifer” (or any similar translation with the image of the brightness of light), but instead “the one wailing aloud” falling from heaven. Discussion In the Masoretic Text the word הֵילֵל appears, but in the Dead Sea Scrolls the word appears instead as היליל. The following image (below) comes ...


13

This is a good question -- or rather, set of questions. I begin by reiterating a comment from the Q&A linked by OP: to engage with this set of issues fully, one really needs to consult Catrin H. Williams, I Am He: The Interpretation of ʾAnî Hûʾ in Jewish and Early Christian Literature (WUNT II/113; Mohr Siebeck, 2000). There is plenty of other relevant ...


12

Dinah, Jacob’s only daughter, born by Leah, was a virgin. She went out to see the daughters of the land. In Gen. 34:2–3, the narrator then uses a series of vav-consecutives to describe a sequence of events. And Shechem, the son of Hamor: v. 2: וַיַּרְא אֹתָהּ (“and he saw her”) וַיִּקַּח אֹתָהּ (“and he took her”) וַיִּשְׁכַּב אֹתָהּ (“and he lay with her,...


9

The answer to whether עַלְמָה means "young maiden" or "virgin" may lie in the answer to a second question. The meaning of the word אוֹת has a tremendous impact on how we read Isaiah 7:14. The word אוֹת as it is used in Tanach can generally be translated as "sign" or "omen." But as signs in the bible often come from G-d, אוֹת can also convey the meaning "...


9

The Sign of Immanuel in Isaiah 7:14 is the single most debated text in scripture. Dozens—literally dozens—of PhD dissertations have been written on it. There are three main questions inherent in the text but the center of the storm revolves around a single word: elem or alma. The story begins with Ahaz, King of Judah, and the coalition formed between the ...


9

When the KJV and other Reformation-era English translations were written, Lucifer was already seen as a proper noun for Satan The OED gives five instances of Lucifer being used as a proper noun before the KJV was written: OE Christ & Satan 366 Wæs þæt encgelcyn ær genemned, Lucifer haten, leohtberende. a1300 Cursor Mundi 442 And for þat he ...


9

In a 2013 interview with Dr Peter Flint, who is an editor on the Isaiah scroll, he had the following to say about the issue: Many scholastic studies tell us that the book of Isaiah was divided into two parts: First Isaiah by Isaiah of Jerusalem (chapters 1–39) and Second Isaiah by a writer living after the Hebrews returned from captivity in Babylon (...


8

I have searched my electronic copy of Biblia Sacr JUXTA Vulgatam Clementinam and it seems in all three cases I could find, lucifer means the morning star (the planet Venus) or possibly just the day in one instance. It seems to be used as an image which suits both the Devil and Christ. It is only Capitalized as a personification in Isaiah where it seems to ...


8

It's possible to be a little more emphatic about the connection to Isaiah 63:3 which is routinely cited by commentators as an "intertext" for Revelation 19:13. This is a significant connection because, as noted in the question, this is judgment context, and the "blood" in question is that of the LORD's enemies. But (again, as noted), in Revelation the "...


8

The translation of almah as virgin makes no sense in context. First, the word almah is a vague term that means a young woman. Betulah is a more specific term for a virgin, especially one whose signs of virginity are still in tact. See Bably. Talmud Yevamot 60b ("והא אמר רבי שמעון 'בתולה' בתולה שלימה משמע" -"and Rabbi Shimon says that the word "betulah" ...


8

The way many read Isaiah 6:9-10 is to hear it as ironic, as showing God expressing his utter frustration with Israel. God will give Isaiah his very word to proclaim to his people, but they'll still ignore what he says. The more he speaks truth, the more they'll ignore him. It won't be Isaiah's fault if people reject him for what he says. One thing that it ...


7

Option 1 is almost certainly what Isaiah meant El-Gibbor strongly parallels names like Ishmael ("God has hearkened") and Elizabeth ("God's promise"). According to a footnote in the NET Bible: גִּבּוֹר (gibbor) is probably an attributive adjective (“mighty God”), though one might translate “God is a warrior” or “God is mighty.” Scholars have interpreted ...


7

When one sleeps, it actually appears like the person is a corpse. (When I sleep, I snore, but that is different.) When my children were very, very young and sleeping in the crib, I would actually nudge them to ensure they were not dead, because in sleep the resemblance is almost exactly akin to death (except for those who snore like me). When the Bible ...


7

All translation is based on an understanding of the underlying text, and so is to a greater or lesser extent doctrinal in nature. Most of the time it doesn't matter. But these things are really a matter of opinion. The Hebrew is invariant, the transliteration is of the Hebrew that would be translated. I suspect that the Jewish translation is more motivated ...


7

The phraseology of turning to the right hand or the left is largely negative. The Mosaic law required that one not do so (Dt 5:32; 17:11, 20; 28:14; Josh 1:7, 23:6; Pro 4:27), and those who did not are commended (2 Kg 22:2; parallel 2 Ch 34:2). Sometimes it is simply neutral in scripture, as in one has a fixed goal (e.g. Gen 24:49; 2 Sam 2:19), but in the ...


7

A note about the flavor of the two major extant text traditions: The LXX was very Messianic in interpretation, in keeping with Jewish tendencies at the time. In contrast, after the events of the first century, Judaism became very anti-Christian to the point of altering interpretations (and even the text at times) where Christians had claimed Scriptural ...


7

There have been a couple of recent treatments of the Trisagion -- at least, these are ones I'm aware of. In 2008 H.G.M. Williamson's "Wellhausen Lecture" was published as Holy, Holy, Holy: The Story of a Liturgical Formula (Walter de Gruyter, 2008).1 He looks at the history of the verse in terms spelled out by the title, but probing back into biblical times ...


7

No, they are not synonymous. In way of background, we note that the Hebrew rûaḥ is commonly rendered by the Greek pneuma, both commonly rendered by the English spirit. The OP is wondering why, in Isaiah 40:13, the translator has chosen the Greek nous ("mind") rather than the more common pneuma ("spirit"). Despite the default translations rûaḥ ↔ ...


6

That is a good question, Stephen. Isaiah does not give many details, but he also does not claim that God told him to go in to this woman. He only claims that God provided the name for the child. There are a few things to consider: Isaiah was told to take his son with him in the previous chapter (Isaiah 7:3), which should indicate that he did have a wife. ...


6

The word translated "evil" or "calamity" in Is 45:7, can (not surprisingly) mean either "evil" or "calamity". HALOT's main definitions: Of little worth, poor, not beneficial, contemptible, reprobate, malicious, injurious, evil, sinister, bringing misfortune, badly depised, ill-deposed, heavy, sullen. For "destruction", see Ez 14:21; for "evil" see Deut 17:5....


6

The previous verse says it all, “for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me,” “I make known the end from the beginning” is a declaration of His Omnipotence since He is not restricted by time as we are instead He lives in eternity and not time, His Omnipresence since He is all places at all times He is literally in the ...


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