Hosea Translation Difficulties
There are a lot of textual issues that must be dealt with when translating the book of Hosea.1
The textual problems in Hosea are virtually unparalleled in the OT.
The Masoretic Text (MT), represented by the Leningrad Codex (c. A.D.
1008), which served as the basis for both BHK and BHS, and the Aleppo
Codex (c. A.D. ...
The noun "baal" (בעל) has several meanings. The four most common are:
owner (or master) - as in Exodus 21:34, "the owner of the pit must pay"
having some characteristic - Genesis 37:19, "here's that dreamer of dreams", Ecclesiastes 10:20, "and a bird [lit. a thing with wings] will inform"
the common term for Canaanite deities, probably from the meaning "...
This would take a book to answer well, but here's the gist:
Israel out of Egypt?
Israel in the Pentateuch was typological of God's people (cf. 1 Cor. 10)
(God's people would have to leave "Egypt", pass through the "water", follow God through the "wilderness", live by God's "law", etc.)
Israel failed to actually be God's people (cf. Hos. 11 and the rest ...
Hosea 3:4 is part of a brief "reprise" of the "prophet-as-symbol" in his relationship with an unfaithful woman/spouse. (The terms of their relationship and the connection between Hosea 1 and 3 are matters of discussion, even dispute, among interpreters.)
Here it appears to be part of a redemption scene, as the woman is taken into the prophet's home,...
OP has already done a fine job in identifying the problem, and setting out solutions. The majority of modern commentators take ...ʾādām here as a reference to a place name, "Adam" (as in Joshua 3:16, as noted by OP). The notion that the following šām "there" requires a place-name as antecedent, and that the only viable candidate is ...ʾādām, is widely found ...
I believe that the word כְּאָדָם in Hosea 6:7 may have been a clever play by the author to refer to both the city referred to in Joshua 3:16 and the Adam of Genesis. Throughout the book of Hosea, the author mentions several places which were identified as committing idolatry, sinning, or otherwise acting against G-d's will. These places include Samaria and ...
16So Jehu rode in a chariot, and went to Jezreel; for Joram lay there. And Ahaziah king of Judah was come down to see Joram.
17And there stood a watchman on the tower in Jezreel, and he spied the company of Jehu as he came, and said, I see a company.
And Joram said, Take an horseman, and send to meet them, and let him say, Is it peace?
The problem is further confounded by the fact that in 2 Kings 10:30 Jehu is even rewarded for his action in Jezreel, so how can Jehu be both rewarded and punished for the same act?
Some commentaries suggest that though Elijah prophesied that this will happen to the house of Ahab, it still does not vindicate the perpetrator from his ...
The important phrase, "I am God and not a man" in Num 23:19 and Hos 11:9 is absolutely correct in three senses:
God is not man at the time it was written in the OT - the incarnation had not yet occurred!
God does not suffer from the sinful tendencies in sinful man. Therefore, God is incapable of lying, unlike sinful humans that apparently find it ...
It is an expression denoting lack of substance, vanity and emptiness. The 10 northern tribes (Ephraim) were looking for protection from the kings of both Assyria and Egypt. Carrying oil to Egypt was a gift to the king for consideration of a treaty with them. They were covering their bets, playing both sides against each other. They forgot to rely upon ...
The instructions given to Jehu was quite explicit
"Thou shalt smite the house of Ahab thy master, that I may avenge the blood of my servants the prophets, and the blood of all the servants of the Lord at the hand of Jezebel" (2 Kings 9:7)
But in carrying out this instruction, Jehu exceeded his bounds. He succeeded in killing everyone who was related to ...
The most widely held view among commentators is that the woman of Hosea 3:1 is Gomer. David Allan Hubbard (TOTC) remarks:
Any other reading would break the analogy which carries the basic
message of this section: the Lord of Israel will judge his idolatrous
people and afterwards renew his relationship with them. To introduce a
second woman would ...
The Immediate Context
The ESV translation highlights the language a bit better here I feel [I did restructure the second section slightly]:
In the first we see Jacob moving out, working for his bride and then guarding her (by guarding sheep).
In the next we see God moving in to do the work of bringing Israel out of Egypt, securing Israel as his bride, ...
It is highly unlikely Hosea is using a literary device.
First, there were two real golden calves in Israel the people worshipped. When the nation divided, Jeroboam, the first king of Israel made two golden calves:
Therefore the king asked advice, made two calves of gold, and said to the people, “It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Here are your ...
I wouldn't necessarily read a direct reference to Deuteronomy 32. The statement in 1:9 is a negation of the common language of covenant. The positive phrasing is common in Scripture:
I will take you as my own people, and I will be your God.
And I will walk among you and will be your God, and you shall be my people.
I found this in Rashi's Commentary;
nor pillar: The pillar of Baal in Samaria of the kings of Israel
מַצֵּבָה (matstsebah) is translated "pillar", and the word is used in 32 occurrences. Since Hosea probably prophesied during the time of the Assyrian Dispersion; see here, he would have seen the 'pillar' of Baal which is described in 2 Kings 10:27,
The Idea in Brief
The Masoretic Text and Babylonian Talmud provide compelling insights.
First, the Masoretic Text provides structure through the cantillation marks and accents to help understand how the words related one to another. In this respect, the cantillation and accent marks provide no direct relationship between the word אָדָם (Adam) and the word ...
Hosea is writing at the time when Israel & Judah are separate kingdoms; their descent from Jacob is what they have in common. In the previous verses Hosea has referenced several other contemporary kingdoms.
The kingdom of Judah--aka the southern kingdom--was called "Judah" because the tribe of Judah was its dominant tribe. The kingdom of Israel-...
Raisin cakes were an item used in pagan worship1. The NET Bible makes this explicit:
...although they turn to other gods and love to offer raisin cakes to idols.
The same practice is spoken of in Jeremiah 7:18
Children are gathering firewood, fathers are building fires with it, and women are mixing dough to bake cakes to offer to the goddess they call ...
Hosea 11:1 is not a prophecy. It is a history that God called Israel His son out of Egypt.
A prophecy gets fulfilled by the predicted events taking place. How do you fulfill a historical event? Historical events are fulfilled by being repeated.
So Jesus fulfills the historical event of the Exodus by Himself, God's only begotten son, also being called out ...
"They sow the wind
and reap the whirlwind.
The stalk has no head;
it will produce no flour.
Were it to yield grain,
foreigners would swallow it up" (NIV - Hosea 8:7)
When we sow something, we do it in expectation of growth in that which we have sown. It is this growth that we reap. The process of growing and harvesting crops is one ...
I appreciate Ruminator's response.
"In the place" should not be taken lightly. "Galilee of the Gentiles" a borderland of the Northern Kingdom was precious to Jesus, and in His day was a crossroads of nations/cultures. Jesus wanted to tread physically in Galilee after His Resurrection specifying to His disciples that He would meet them there "at the mountain"...
I'm of the opinion that it is the last phrases of 9:25 and 9:26 that include the gentiles:
NASB Romans 9:even us, whom He also called, not from among Jews [Judeans]
only, but also from among Gentiles. As He says also in Hosea, "I
will call those who were not My people, 'My people,' And her who was
not beloved, 'beloved.'" Romans 9 "And ...
Those of the Single-intent school must say that Hosea only spoke of Israel.
However, from the Sensus Plenior school, all things speak of Christ. God used words, histories, prophecies, types, shadows, riddles, etc to speak of Christ.
Therefore the histories are literal histories, but God put them in scripture because in the telling of the history he ...
It is Possible, but Debated
Duane Garrett discusses this in his entry about the verse in Hosea, Joel, Vol. 19A, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1997)
Some scholars argue that the Hebrew actually means “And I am not ‘I
AM’ to you.” In other words, they argue that with these words God has
Yes. It violated God's commands.
"32 Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods. 33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee." (Ex. 23:32-33, KJV)
"12 Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land ...
The Hebrew word זְנוּנִים (zanuwn) or זָנָה (zanah) means “to commit whoredom; play the harlot”; or “to commit spiritual whoredom or idolatry; (Davidson 240); and “fornicate, be a prostitute” or basically just fornication or adultery (Botterweck 4: 99-100 and Wolff 9). It is most often used figuratively referring to Israel’s faithlessness (Botterweck 4: 99)....
The Hebrew of the MT parsha Hosea 13:12-14 is straightforward and very close to modern Hebrew (Leningrad Codex):
צָרוּר֙ עֲוֺ֣ן אֶפְרָ֔יִם צְפוּנָ֖ה חַטָּאתֽוֹ
A string of iniquity is Ephraim, his sin has amassed
חֶבְלֵ֥י יֽוֹלֵדָ֖ה יָבֹ֣אוּ ל֑וֹ הוּא־בֵן֙ לֹ֣א חָכָ֔ם כִּֽי־עֵ֥ת לֹֽא־יַעֲמֹ֖ד בְּמִשְׁבַּ֥ר בָּנִֽים
Throes [like] childbirth will come upon ...