38

Good question - could take a book to answer! The key phrase which unlocks (or veils?) identity is in v. 12: "O Lucifer, son of the morning!" Hebrew: הֵילֵ֣ל בֶּן־שָׁ֑חַר | hêlēl ben-šāḥar Greek: ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωὶ ἀνατέλλων | ho heōsphoros ho prōi anatellōn Grk trans.: the Day Star, which used to rise early in the morning And, important in a moment, ...


14

Nicodemus Should Have Known from the Old Testament That the Old Testament is the source of the doctrine is confirmed by Christ Himself, for Nicodemus was supposed to have known these things. A slightly larger context helps see this: Jn 3:3-10 (NKJV) 3 Jesus answered and said to him, “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again [or "born ...


14

I regret that I do not have access to the article by Johnston, but I understand his gist from Susan’s answer. First of all, the argument that “research has failed to turn up any evidence for the use of eunuchs as officials in Egypt” is likely to convince only those who believe that the story of Joseph is an authentic record of historic events. It will not ...


14

1977 and All That There is a clear consensus marking the starting point of the "New Perspective on Paul" -- it was the landmark publication of E.P. Sanders' Paul and Palestinian Judaism: A Comparison of Patterns of Religion (SCM/Fortress Press, 1977). James Dunn (himself among those espousing the NPP) reviewed recent past decades of scholarship on Paul in ...


13

The word used to describe Potiphar's relationship with Pharaoh (37:36, 39:1) is sārı̂s, which is indeed commonly glossed "eunuch" (e.g. BDB; cf. LXX εὐνοῦχος). However, to my knowledge no major English translation, including the KJV, translates it thus in this pericope (rather "officer" or "official"). There are several reasons for this, but perhaps the most ...


12

This may be related to another question about the parable that is the context for this question on Matthew 18:34 in particular. OP: What is the original word used in our oldest manuscripts and how has that word been traditionally used? The word used here for "torturers" is τοῖς βασανισταῖς or, in its lexical form, βασανιστής (basanistēs). There are no ...


11

"Anachronism" is not a distinctive technical term in biblical hermeneutics, nor does it have a nuance which would distinguish it from its meaning in English more broadly. The Wikipedia article catches it nicely: "anachronism" is ...a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person(s), events, objects, or customs from ...


11

Note: Since some gap theory arguments rely on phrasing in the King James, I will be quoting from the KJV unless otherwise noted. All verses will be examined in the KJV, other versions will be listed if they correct or add to the discussion. The Gap Theory, sometimes called the Ruin and Reconstruction Theory of creation, postulates that an unspecified amount ...


10

The attestation of χριστός outside of Jewish/Christian antique Greek literature is quite small. This is immediately apparent if you look at a list of all occurrences known to the Perseus corpus, as well as the citations noted in the Liddell-Scott-Jones entry. According to Walter Grundmann, writing in the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (vol. 9, ...


8

I don't know of any scholar who denies that Hammurabi wrote a code of laws before Moses received the Ten Commandments and the accompanying law. So if the question is: Did Moses invent the idea of having a written code of laws, the answer is clearly "no". But if the question is: Were the specific set of laws in the Ten Commandments et al not really written ...


8

If you are suggesting that the "discerning" or "distinguishing" of spirits in verse 10 refers to something along the lines of divination, I don't believe that this is how the verse was understood. It simply means the ability to discern false teachers and false prophets. John Chrysostom, a 4th century Greek, explains the verse: What is discerning of ...


8

While I am sure that Melchisedek is eternal in the sense that he is in heaven with Christ, Heb. 7:3 was not saying Melchisidek never had a mother or father. The understanding comes from knowing customary Jewish terminology. If they did not have the record of the genealogy to prove the lineage to Aaron, the priesthood was not legitimate, and they would say ...


7

Mark Edward did a fantastic job of covering the Biblical link between the serpent and Satan, so I will not re-hash that, but I would like to directly address the second part of the OPs question: was John the first to link these two figures together? Or had the two already been connected in Jewish thought at the time? If not, is there any way to explain ...


7

Luke 8:3 says that Joanna was the wife of Chuza Herod’s "epitropos". Another text may shed further light on this. In John 4:46ff we read that: 46 So he [Jesus] came again to Cana in Galilee, where he had made the water wine. And at Capernaum there was an official basilikos whose son was ill. 47When this man heard that Jesus had come from Judea to Galilee, ...


7

I'd tend to look back at 1 Corinthians 10:14-17 (NIV), note the focus on one and unity. 14 Therefore, my dear friends, flee from idolatry. 15 I speak to sensible people; judge for yourselves what I say. 16 Is not the cup of thanksgiving for which we give thanks a participation in the blood of Christ? And is not the bread that we break a ...


7

The origin of the Christian teaching of the ‘new birth’ is at most partly an outworking of the Hebrew concept of a resurrection, it uses words in Greek that can barely be traced in other literature and on the whole is therefore entirely something new. The Greek word used in 1 Peter 1:23 (αναγεγεννημενοι) is actually quite hard to find in any other Greek ...


7

In the article Hebrew Henotheism: Challenging the notion of Biblical Monotheism, the case is made that the Shema was to be understood relationally with Israel. The 1985 edition of the Jewish Publication Society translation of the TaNaKH portrays this when they translate the verse as “Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD alone.” This reading ...


7

(Note: I am answering this question at the request of another user, made here.) The "New" Perspective on Paul The New Perspective on Paul is really a whole collection of overlapping and sometimes disparate viewpoints primarily within Protestantism, calling into question the traditional Protestant understanding of Paul's writings as teaching that ...


7

The word is Aramaic (ממון in Hebrew script) and means something like "wealth". μαμωνᾶς is simply the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic word. Here is Jastrow's entry for it: It appears throughout the Targumim - Aramaic translations/paraphrases of the Hebrew Scriptures written in Aramaic script. The Greek word appears only 4 times in the New Testament (in ...


6

The Tanakh translates בִּקְהַ֖ל יְהוָֽה in Deuteronomy 23 as "congregation of the LORD." Bernard M. Levinson's commentary in the JPS Study Bible states: The congregation of the LORD (v.2) served as the national governing body, akin to to a popular legislature, that was charged with a broad range of judicial, political, and policy matters (Judges 20:2) 1 ...


6

Be careful not to bring theological and cultural assumptions to the text, namely that Hades and heaven are separate places (and the corresponding ideas about what they are).1 The notions of 'heaven' and 'hell' in Western culture were foreign in the mindset of first-century Judea, and thus reading these ideas back into the text is anachronistic.2 What is ...


6

The word Paul uses here, is αναξιως, a compound word consisting of αν + αξιως. So, it means "not" + "appropriately" or "inappropriately". In 1 Corinthians 11:24-25, Paul records how Jesus instituted the memorial service. He: gave thanks for the bread broke the bread and invited the disciples to eat it in order to recall his body that was about to be broken ...


6

There are several questions lying beneath the surface of this question: 1) Is it 'conclusive' that the Qumran Scrolls are the work of the Essenes? Scholars are generally in agreement with this conclusion, and cite the "Damascus Document", discovered in Cairo in 1897, or prior to the Qumran scrolls which depict the life of the Essene, the vows they had to ...


6

Clarification on Terms My definitions for clarification. Evening: The period of the Sun descending toward the horizon to set. Sunset: The exact time the Sun is no longer visible above the horizon. Evening Twilight: The period of decreasing light between Sunset and Dusk. Dusk: The exact time all sunlight is no longer visible in the western sky. Night: The ...


6

Koehler Baumgartner (HALOT) lists נֶגֶד here as originally a substantive, not a preposition. So with the 3rd person pronominal suffix, and the כ inseparable preposition, would be something like "according to his opposite" or "according to what is proper for him." See the usage in Proverbs 8:6 as well. Neh 3:16 and 3:26 have a similar meaning with עד, "as far ...


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