37

Good question - could take a book to answer! The key phrase which unlocks (or veils?) identity is in v. 12: "O Lucifer, son of the morning!" Hebrew: הֵילֵ֣ל בֶּן־שָׁ֑חַר | hêlēl ben-šāḥar Greek: ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωὶ ἀνατέλλων | ho heōsphoros ho prōi anatellōn Grk trans.: the Day Star, which used to rise early in the morning And, important in a moment, ...


14

I regret that I do not have access to the article by Johnston, but I understand his gist from Susan’s answer. First of all, the argument that “research has failed to turn up any evidence for the use of eunuchs as officials in Egypt” is likely to convince only those who believe that the story of Joseph is an authentic record of historic events. It will not ...


13

The word used to describe Potiphar's relationship with Pharaoh (37:36, 39:1) is sārı̂s, which is indeed commonly glossed "eunuch" (e.g. BDB; cf. LXX εὐνοῦχος). However, to my knowledge no major English translation, including the KJV, translates it thus in this pericope (rather "officer" or "official"). There are several reasons for this, but perhaps the most ...


12

This may be related to another question about the parable that is the context for this question on Matthew 18:34 in particular. OP: What is the original word used in our oldest manuscripts and how has that word been traditionally used? The word used here for "torturers" is τοῖς βασανισταῖς or, in its lexical form, βασανιστής (basanistēs). There are no ...


12

1977 and All That There is a clear consensus marking the starting point of the "New Perspective on Paul" -- it was the landmark publication of E.P. Sanders' Paul and Palestinian Judaism: A Comparison of Patterns of Religion (SCM/Fortress Press, 1977). James Dunn (himself among those espousing the NPP) reviewed recent past decades of scholarship on Paul in ...


11

"Anachronism" is not a distinctive technical term in biblical hermeneutics, nor does it have a nuance which would distinguish it from its meaning in English more broadly. The Wikipedia article catches it nicely: "anachronism" is ...a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person(s), events, objects, or customs from ...


11

Note: Since some gap theory arguments rely on phrasing in the King James, I will be quoting from the KJV unless otherwise noted. All verses will be examined in the KJV, other versions will be listed if they correct or add to the discussion. The Gap Theory, sometimes called the Ruin and Reconstruction Theory of creation, postulates that an unspecified amount ...


10

The attestation of χριστός outside of Jewish/Christian antique Greek literature is quite small. This is immediately apparent if you look at a list of all occurrences known to the Perseus corpus, as well as the citations noted in the Liddell-Scott-Jones entry. According to Walter Grundmann, writing in the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (vol. 9, ...


8

I don't know of any scholar who denies that Hammurabi wrote a code of laws before Moses received the Ten Commandments and the accompanying law. So if the question is: Did Moses invent the idea of having a written code of laws, the answer is clearly "no". But if the question is: Were the specific set of laws in the Ten Commandments et al not really written ...


8

If you are suggesting that the "discerning" or "distinguishing" of spirits in verse 10 refers to something along the lines of divination, I don't believe that this is how the verse was understood. It simply means the ability to discern false teachers and false prophets. John Chrysostom, a 4th century Greek, explains the verse: What is discerning of ...


8

"Wandering stars" were understood to be the planets (Gr. planetes - the word used here), whose transit in the sky appeared quite chaotic in antiquity compared to the paths of the other bodies. In his commentary on Jude, Bede (ca 672-735) explains: The wandering stars, which are seven1 never rise or set in the same place as they did on the previous day ...


8

While I am sure that Melchisedek is eternal in the sense that he is in heaven with Christ, Heb. 7:3 was not saying Melchisidek never had a mother or father. The understanding comes from knowing customary Jewish terminology. If they did not have the record of the genealogy to prove the lineage to Aaron, the priesthood was not legitimate, and they would say ...


7

It may likely grow into the Sinapis Nigra (Black Mustard). It can grow to eight feet tall, so it could actually be literally used by small birds to nest on its branches. However parables are not to be taken so literally and the image may be a slight exaggeration as part in parcel with the point of the passage. In the OT mustard is not mentioned. Yet later ...


7

Mark Edward did a fantastic job of covering the Biblical link between the serpent and Satan, so I will not re-hash that, but I would like to directly address the second part of the OPs question: was John the first to link these two figures together? Or had the two already been connected in Jewish thought at the time? If not, is there any way to explain ...


7

In the article Hebrew Henotheism: Challenging the notion of Biblical Monotheism, the case is made that the Shema was to be understood relationally with Israel. The 1985 edition of the Jewish Publication Society translation of the TaNaKH portrays this when they translate the verse as “Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD alone.” This reading ...


7

The word is Aramaic (ממון in Hebrew script) and means something like "wealth". μαμωνᾶς is simply the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic word. Here is Jastrow's entry for it: It appears throughout the Targumim - Aramaic translations/paraphrases of the Hebrew Scriptures written in Aramaic script. The Greek word appears only 4 times in the New Testament (in ...


6

That is a good question, Stephen. Isaiah does not give many details, but he also does not claim that God told him to go in to this woman. He only claims that God provided the name for the child. There are a few things to consider: Isaiah was told to take his son with him in the previous chapter (Isaiah 7:3), which should indicate that he did have a wife. ...


6

The Tanakh translates בִּקְהַ֖ל יְהוָֽה in Deuteronomy 23 as "congregation of the LORD." Bernard M. Levinson's commentary in the JPS Study Bible states: The congregation of the LORD (v.2) served as the national governing body, akin to to a popular legislature, that was charged with a broad range of judicial, political, and policy matters (Judges 20:2) 1 ...


6

Meaning of κόκκῳ σινάπεως This is more or less just some additional information, Mike's answer is good. According to the IVP NT Commentary series: Scholars still dispute what plant is meant by the “mustard seed.” Nevertheless, by no conjecture is it the smallest of all seeds that Jesus’ listeners could have known (the orchid seed is smaller); the ...


6

Luke 8:3 says that Joanna was the wife of Chuza Herod’s "epitropos". Another text may shed further light on this. In John 4:46ff we read that: 46 So he [Jesus] came again to Cana in Galilee, where he had made the water wine. And at Capernaum there was an official basilikos whose son was ill. 47When this man heard that Jesus had come from Judea to Galilee, ...


6

I'd tend to look back at 1 Corinthians 10:14-17 (NIV), note the focus on one and unity. 14 Therefore, my dear friends, flee from idolatry. 15 I speak to sensible people; judge for yourselves what I say. 16 Is not the cup of thanksgiving for which we give thanks a participation in the blood of Christ? And is not the bread that we break a ...


6

There are several questions lying beneath the surface of this question: 1) Is it 'conclusive' that the Qumran Scrolls are the work of the Essenes? Scholars are generally in agreement with this conclusion, and cite the "Damascus Document", discovered in Cairo in 1897, or prior to the Qumran scrolls which depict the life of the Essene, the vows they had to ...


6

Clarification on Terms My definitions for clarification. Evening: The period of the Sun descending toward the horizon to set. Sunset: The exact time the Sun is no longer visible above the horizon. Evening Twilight: The period of decreasing light between Sunset and Dusk. Dusk: The exact time all sunlight is no longer visible in the western sky. Night: The ...


6

(Note: I am answering this question at the request of another user, made here.) The "New" Perspective on Paul The New Perspective on Paul is really a whole collection of overlapping and sometimes disparate viewpoints primarily within Protestantism, calling into question the traditional Protestant understanding of Paul's writings as teaching that ...


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