11

Short answer The greek word translated as "babbler" in Acts 17:18 is a piece of Athenian slang, meaning: "an empty speaker, an ignorant, a vulgar plagiarist", commonly used to define those bad preachers of the rabble, from the street-corners of the market place. For Paul as a man, it's an insulting word. For Paul as a preacher, it's a ...


10

Katatomē in Philippians 3:2 means "mutilation". It isn't used elsewhere in the New Testament, nor is the cognate verb κατατέμνω. However, the latter is used four times in the LXX. A glance over the three that correspond closely to the Hebrew (and thus to the English I'm able to pull up at Biblegateway) will give you an idea about the background associations ...


9

The original question contained a link to the interesting article by Rendsburg 1988: http://jewishstudies.rutgers.edu/docman/rendsburg/64-the-mock-of-baal-in-1-kings-18-27/file Has anyone else looked at it? The author argues that śiăḥ and śiḡ are a hendiadys. śiḡ or siḡ is well-known in the meaning “go away, step aside”, and can thus reasonably be ...


9

It is correct to say that σύζυγος (literally “yoke-mate, one of a pair”) can be masculine or feminine, and that it is very often used to mean “wife” in classical and post-classical Greek. But in this passage it is modified by the adjective γνήσιε, which is unmistakeably masculine singular vocative. Thus, “wife” is not possible here. Anyway, as you point ...


7

The original Hebrew text reads בקרת תהיה, “there shall be biqoreth”. This last word is variously translated as “investigation” or “punishment”, but it seems only the KJV applies this specifically to the woman. The Hebrew text doesn’t support this at all, so it’s unclear why the KJV translates the text this way. Perhaps this was a mistake; perhaps they had a ...


6

The question as posed by OP -- concerning aspects of the "πολύσπλαγχνος + οἰκτίρμων" pair in James 5:11 -- has all the seeds of its own answer. First, the relevant bit of text: NA28 ... πολύσπλαγχνός ἐστιν ὁ κύριος καὶ οἰκτίρμων. NRSV ... the Lord is compassionate and merciful. I'll take the interrelated sub-questions in a slightly different order. (...


6

As noted in other answers, the meaning of גֹּפֶר seems lost to us, and any translation must therefore be speculative. To support the translation "cypress", however, consider the following extract from Beekes/Van Beek, Etymological Dictionary of Greek: κυπάρισσος [f.] 'cypress' (ε 64). <PG(V)> - VAR Att. -ιττος. [...] - ETYM Clearly a Pre-Greek word,...


6

Background In his paper The Mock of Baal in 1 Kings 18:27, Gary A. Rendsburg explains the issue: …Elijah began to taunt his opponents about the inefficacy of their god. His exact words are as follows: “shout in a loud voice, for he is a god, kî śîaḥ wêḵî śîg lō, or he may be on a journey, or perhaps he is sleeping or waking up.” (1 Kgs 18:27) The ...


5

The OP asks specifically about extra-biblical resources available for exploring the meaning of rare words in the Bible. The lexical situation is very different when considering Classical Hebrew and Koine Greek, so I will consider those separately. First, a few general remarks about Biblical word studies: The best resource for English readers to understand ...


5

Hermeneutics is not only about the deductive approach to interpreting Scripture (for example, grammar and syntax) but also the inductive approach, which is to infer the generalization from several pieces of information -- sort of connecting the dots. In other words, hermeneutics is both an art (subjective) and science (objective). The concept of the Sabbath ...


5

Good question! The Greek ending -σμος makes a noun out of a verb. The verb "σαββατιζω", as used by Plutarch and Justin Martyr about keeping the sabbath, therefore becomes "the result of keeping the sabbath". In a similar way, "inflate", the act of increasing the size of something, becomes "inflation", the result of increasing the size of something. It ...


5

Is it the case that Noah, his family, and all the animals had but one small window to breathe through (Gen. 6:16)? In the article "Ark" under the heading "Design and Size", the Insight on the Scriptures gives another alternative: “You will make a tsoʹhar [roof; or, window] for the ark,” Noah was told. (Ge 6:16) Just what this was or how ...


4

It's worth reading Gesenius's interpretation of מֶשֶׁק here. He identifies מֶשֶׁק (mesheq) with מֶשֶׁךְ (meshek - defined here) in its meaning of "possession." He views the unusual form of מֶשֶׁק, with a koph instead of a caph for the last letter, as a pun ("paronomasia") to go with with דַּמֶּשֶׂק (Dammeseq), "Damascus." Gesenius rejects the interpretation ...


3

This seems to be one where the translations, lexicons, and commentaries are in broad agreement: it's meant temporally. The syntax of the verse εἰς τὸ εἶναι ἡμᾶς εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης αὐτοῦ τοὺς προηλπικότας ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ. so that we who were the first to hope in Christ might be to the praise of his glory. (ESV) In this rendering, τοὺς προηλπικότας is ...


2

The Masoretic text reads literally 'an inquest/punishment shall be'. Considering the translation rules of the KJB & the 6 antecedents of the KJB: Tyndale reads they shall both be investigated. Wycliffe confirms this but gives the alternative meaning of "beaten". Coverdale implies "it" (the transgression) shall be punished (which would include both ...


2

ותצחק שרה and laughing Sarah בקרבה within herself לאמר to say אחרי בלתי after I am without/lack היתה לי her-exist/become of me עדנה her-make-pleasure ואדני זקן and my lord-husband is bearded/old You should simply read the passage at its face value. Sarah laughing within herself to say, after I lack/lose my liveliness, have pleasure and my husband ...


2

I have a feeling that regardless of how one translates the parable, there is truth in each translation. Is, perhaps, one translation closer to the truth which Luke and Jesus intended to communicate? Probably. To me, the important thing is that a translation (and later, an interpretation) fits the context (and all that that entails!). The Importance of ...


2

I confess I see hermeneutics as more of a jigsaw and less of a card game--it’s not so much about playing a trump card as it is about putting together the pieces. While I do believe each of the criteria mentioned in the OP are relevant, I’ll attempt to describe which I believe carries the most weight in understanding Paul’s meaning in 1 Timothy (and ...


2

According to the Oxford Jewish Study Bible, the Hebrew of the verse is "uncertain", although Talmudic commentary (Rashi, in English translation) seems to understand that he is on a journey refers to a journey to the "water closet". The Septuagint reads: for he is meditating, or else perhaps he is engaged in business, or perhaps he is asleep, and is to be ...


2

Gen 6.14-16 (LEB) Make for yourself an ark of cypress wood; you must make the ark with rooms, then you must cover it with pitch, inside and outside. And this is how you must make it: the length of the ark, three hundred cubits; its width fifty cubits; its height, thirty cubits. You must make a roof for the ark, and finish it to a cubit above. And as for the ...


2

Let's start with the MT: כֹּ֤ה הִרְאַ֙נִי֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה וְהִנֵּה֙ יוֹצֵ֣ר גֹּבַ֔י בִּתְחִלַּ֖ת עֲל֣וֹת הַלָּ֑קֶשׁ וְהִ֨נֵּה־לֶ֔קֶשׁ אַחַ֖ר גִּזֵּ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ Literally this says: This is what the LORD showed me The LORD is going to form locusts At the beginning of growing the leqesh And Look the leqesh [is] after the mowings of the king. Here, I have ...


1

The Hebrew manuscript this is taken from is accessible here, along with the translation which I believe is quoted in this question: http://www.bensira.org/navigator.php?Manuscript=A&PageNum=10 I find this translation by Parker and Abegg to be fairly good. However, the phrase "a distant look" is not how I would render שיג ישיח , but it is literally, "...


1

There is an order of importance, the first of which is context. Historical and cultural background will help the reader to understand the context, but it comes down to the context. 1 Tim. 1 sets up the reason for Paul's letter in that "some" were leading others astray with false doctrine. "3...that thou mightest charge certain not to teach ...


1

The Junia Project (JP) is concerned with the First Timothy's instructions on the role of women, with emphasis on the meaning of 1 Timothy 2:12-13, which states that women should not teach or usurp authority over men: 1 Timothy 2:12: But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, ...


1

A lexicon is the tool of choice for identifying the meaning of words and their semantic domains. These tools assume knowledge of the language as words have different meanings depending on their morphology, syntax, and context. A Note on Most Freely Available Public Domain Greek-English Lexica "...in 1895, Adolf Deissmann published his Bibelstudien - an ...


1

Who is ἀναίδεια attributed to? Luke 11:8 λέγω ὑμῖν, εἰ καὶ οὐ δώσει αὐτῷ ἀναστὰς διὰ τὸ εἶναι φίλον αὐτοῦ, διά γε τὴν ἀναίδειαν αὐτοῦ ἐγερθεὶς δώσει αὐτῷ ὅσων χρῄζει. Grammatically it is possible to read the second "αὐτοῦ" (his) as referring to either the slumbering man or his nocturnal supplicant. Neither reading will materially change the teaching of the ...


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