14

No Blunder at All The word "seed," whether Hebrew or English, is often used in a figurative sense to refer to one descending from another (and not normally to the actual sperm or egg of the parent that is the source of propagation). The word can have a singular or a collective meaning. Even a collective meaning, however, is viewing the individual elements ...


14

Succinctly stated, as Christ himself was circumcised,1 all those who are “in Christ” are also circumcised with Christ,2 just as all those who are in Christ: suffer with Christ3 are crucified with Christ4 die with Christ5 are buried with Christ6 are resurrected with Christ7 are made alive with Christ8 live with Christ9 are glorified with Christ10 inherit ...


11

The OP questions the validity of the article "a" in English versions given the lack of a corresponding word in Greek. I will argue that "a law" is indeed an accurate translation. There is no indefinite article "a" in Greek; good translations include it with indefinite nouns where required in English. While there are many contexts where a noun without the ...


11

Simply put, the law of circumcision was given by God to the Hebrew people who made up the physical, geographical nation of Israel and to all the foreigners who would live in the nation of Israel. Jesus came fulfill the law and the prophets, and to be the atoning sacrifice for sin once and for all for all who trust in him, so thanks to Jesus, our right ...


10

Short Answer: Yes, they would know what he meant The longer answer is that the letter to the church in Rome (1:7) was to a mixed group of Gentiles (1:13) and Jews (2:17). Most believe the church started from some of the Jews present at Peter's preaching during Pentecost, the "visitors from Rome" (Act 2:10; NKJV/ESV/NASB). Starting at 2:17, Paul begins more ...


9

An alternative explanation could just be rooted in practicality. The pattern had already been established by the Antiochene church in Acts 11:27-30. Agabus predicted an imminent famine and the church in Antioch. There were many famines during Claudius's reign (41-54), the most severe of which occurred in Judea around 46-47. Because of the imminent threat, ...


9

It seems probable that when Paul was blinded on the Damascus road and subsequently healed at the hands of Ananias, the healing was partial and his eyes continued to give him ongoing trouble. This is strongly hinted at in the immediate context of Gal 4:13; in v 15, Paul says that had it been possible, the Galatians would have plucked out their own eyes and ...


9

Galatians is directed to Gentiles who were being persuaded to become circumcised and adopt the Mosaic law (Torah). The lapse which Paul mentions in the verse following does not mean that they had followed the law previously. Rather, he has an overarching salvation-historical shift in mind. The world prior to (and outside of) Christ is made up of "elements" (...


8

They were primarily bi-lingual Note: unattributed links are to general knowledge found on Wikipedia and primarily for the historical background. Alexander the Great made his conquests during the early 4th c. BC, at which time Hellenization first occurred in the area (which in part actively sought the teaching of the Greek language). The Celtic invasion of ...


8

The power of the Holy Spirit enables one to live the Christ-like life. For example, Gal 5:22-23 (NASB) 22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 23 gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law. The ends with the phrase "...there is no law." The law does not exist in order to ...


8

ἀββα is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic אַבָּא. In both Hebrew and Aramaic, the vocative is often indicated by definitizing a noun.1 Hence, we can interpret אַבָּא into English as the nominative “the father” (e.g., as the subject of a sentence) or the vocative “father” (e.g., in an address). In each of its three occurrences in the Greek NT,2 it is ...


8

The understanding for the sign of circumcision is deeply embedded in the OT concept of covenants. All divinely initiated covenants in the Bible contain the following six elements: Statement of pre-amble and/or purpose of the covenant Promise of benefits given by God. This shows that such divine covenants are the initiative of God alone. In no case were ...


7

This question is too good to have no answers, but I fear my answer will not do it justice. I hope others will take a shot at it as well - even if for no other reason than to prove me wrong. 1) Paul is converted on the way to Damascus (let's call this year 0) Acts 9:8 Then Saul arose from the ground, and when his eyes were opened he saw no one. But they ...


7

The answer is very simple. First, as already noted by the OP, the Hebrew word for seed (zera`) is both collective and singular. Throughout the Hebrew Bible the particular word occurs in the grammatical singular but with reference to the collective plural sense (and sometimes even to the singular sense); in these respects context is very important. For ...


7

It is helpful to understand the purpose(s) of the Mosaic Law. Quickly: It was intended to point people to their need for a Savior (Gal 3:19; Rom 5:20). It was intended to highlight their sinful nature (Rom 7:7). It taught many aspects of God and peoples' relationship to him. For examples, the sacrificial system was a reminder of humanity's need for a ...


7

First, What was the situation in Galatia at that time? Once that is established, the reason for the OT quote should become clearer. On Paul and Barnabas’s first missionary tour, they had established congregations of new believers in Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe (Acts 13:13-14:28). Then arose an increasingly heated debate amongst Jewish ...


6

It is not about grammar but about the mystical interpretation of Abraham's seed that both the Hebrew and the Greek scriptures argue according to Pauline theology: He is not laying stress on the particular word used, but on the fact that a singular noun of some kind, a collective term, is employed, where τὰ τέκνα or οἱ ἀπόγονοι for instance might have ...


6

Peter was present when the gospel was first introduce to the Gentiles — Cornelius being the first. Peter was the first (or was present) for the introduction of the gospel to all major groups (Jews, Samaritans, Gentiles). That does not means that that was Peter's primary mission field. Paul's primary mission field was initially to Jews living outside of ...


6

Paul is referring to James, the brother of Jesus as an apostle. A word for word translation appears here: ἕτερον δὲ τῶν ἀποστόλων οὐκ εἶδον εἰ μὴ Ἰάκωβον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Κυρίου Other. moreover (but/also). of the. apostles. none. I saw. if. not. James. the. brother. of the. Lord. Biblehub (Sanday: Ellicott's Commentary) states: "From the form of this ...


6

Abraham was 75 when he left Haran. This was The Promise, and the start of 430 years to the Exodus. 25 years later, Abraham is 100 years old and Isaac is born. We are now 25 years from The Promise 5 years later, Isaac is weaned. Ishmael mocks Isaac, Ishmael and Hagar are exiled. This is the start of the 400 years of being "mistreated/afflicted" and then ...


6

The answer is quoted (Genesis 17:13) in the question. Your bodies will bear the mark of my everlasting covenant. If the covenant is everlasting, how can a human body, subject to death and decay, display that covenant . . . everlastingly ? It cannot. But the sign can be borne, during this life. And that is what circumcision is - but a signification of that ...


5

Not really, unless we imagine the decision of the Council is at odds not only with Paul's wishes, but also with what Peter stated during the course of the argument (describing the yoke of Torah as something that "neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear," Acts 15:10). According to Acts, Paul certainly seems to have thought the decision was a ...


5

One possibility is that it came out of the meeting in Jerusalem described in Galatians 2, where Paul writes: and when James and Cephas and John, who were acknowledged pillars, recognized the grace that had been given to me, they gave to Barnabas and me the right hand of fellowship, agreeing that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. ...


5

The Greek text of Galatians 6:10 reads: Ἄρα οὖν ὡς καιρὸν ἔχομεν, ἐργαζώμεθα1 τὸ ἀγαθὸν πρὸς πάντας, μάλιστα δὲ πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους τῆς πίστεως.2 A literal translation of this passage is: Consequently therefore, as we have opportunity, let us do good to all, and especially to those of the household of faith. The double connective at the beginning ...


5

The OP asked: Galatians 3:10 says that "as many as are of the works of the law [as opposed to those who live by faith] are under the curse." Is this different from being accursed [as described in 1:8]? This question about a possible difference between the sort of curse in Gal 1:8,9 and Gal 3:10 seems to have not been addressed so far. For reference (NA28 ...


5

According to Meyer's NT Commentary, many commentators have taken different positions on this question, those that view 15-21 as a continuation include Chrysostom, Theodoret, Jerome, Estius, Bengel, Rosenmüller, Tittmann, Knapp, Flatt, Winer, Rückert, Schott, Baumgarten-Crusius, de Wette and Möller, Hilgenfeld, Ewald and Holsten. Those opposed include ...


5

The texts in question In Act 9:20-28 we read: Acts 9:20 Immediately he preached the Christ in the synagogues, that He is the Son of God. 21 Then all who heard were amazed, and said, "Is this not he who destroyed those who called on this name in Jerusalem, and has come here for that purpose, so that he might bring them bound to the chief priests?" ...


5

According to the new testament witness, the Spirit of God and the Spirit of Christ are one and the same Spirit (Romans 8:9). The apostles tell us that this was true of the Spirit in the Old Testament also (1 Peter 1:11). It is through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, that the Father and the Son are said to "make [their] home" in the believer (...


5

The word transliterated αββα is Aramaic (אַבָּא), not Hebrew (which would be אָב). Aramaic marks definiteness with the absolute state (usually the suffix -ā), as opposed to Hebrew which uses a prefix. The word אַבָּא is in the emphatic state (the absolute state in Aramaic would be אַב), so it effectively does correspond to the Greek definite article.


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