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A "figure of speech" is a word or phrase not used literally, such as metaphor, hyperbole, euphemism, etc.

According to the Wikipedia "figure of speech" article:

A figure of speech is figurative language in the form of a single word or phrase. It can be a special repetition, arrangement or omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words. There are mainly five figures of speech: simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification and synecdoche.

There are many more sub-species than these five "main" types, and these are conveniently listed at the end of the article.

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