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21

This apparent contradiction can be resolved without the documentary hypothesis. As Bruce Alderman pointed out, Gen 17 is considered an E passage, yet it uses YHWH in the very first verse. Similarly, there are J passages that use Elohim (the very first J passage actually uses YHWH-Elohim). There are certain patterns in Hebrew thought for when one name ...


20

The (relatively) small amount of bronze needed to make that serpent/snake (or נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת nĕḥaš nĕḥōšet) in the story of Num 21:4-9,1 even if it was as large as the monument now on Mount Nebo in Jordan,... ...would still have been quite small compared to the amount of bronze (let alone silver and gold) needed to make the utensils required for the ...


18

I believe your first option is the best but with a little modification. Moses originally had an Egyptian name that sounded almost exactly like a Hebrew name. The pun involved in the name is elaborate and crosses languages. Names like Tutmose, Ramose, Amenmose are well attested from Egypt. The addition of -mose makes it "born of Amen," "child of Tut," or "...


14

There is a definite tension in this passage with Exodus 33:20. There are, however, a couple things in this passage that help alleviate some of it. First off, verse 11 notes: "But God did not raise his hand against these leaders of the Israelites." The author goes out of the way to note essentially that the leaders here did not die. That's the kind of ...


14

See also the follow-up Q&A to this one on the Greek antecedents of the absolute use of ἐγὼ εἰμί in the New Testament which advances and nuances the discussion below. The Question This is an excellent question, and one that in different forms has been pondered by interpreters of John's gospel for centuries. My own way of capturing what is at stake here ...


13

The word in Exodus 20:21 which you translate as 'tool' is the Hebrew חרב which most literaly means 'sword'. Rashi there explains that a sword is designed to shorten life, while an altar is designed to lengthen life by being used to achieve atonement. It makes sense, therefore, that one should not be used in the formation of the other.


12

Gesenius in his Hebrew Grammar (Kautzsch/Cowley edition, commonly GKC) spends several pages on "Agreement between Members of a Sentence, especially between Subject and Predicate in respect of Gender and Number." He gives many examples of when the number of the verb and the noun disagree. This is section 145 of the book. In my edition, this is page 462-...


12

Offering the eldest, the firtsborn, the firstfruits, etc is all about putting God in the forefront of your life. This is shown clearly in 1 Samuel 1 where Hannah dedicates her firstborn son to the Lord in service: She made a vow and said, "O LORD of hosts, if You will indeed look on the affliction of Your maidservant and remember me, and not forget Your ...


12

The Tetragram in Hebrew is a proper name, and names do not have articles in Hebrew any more than they do in English. The article "the" arises in OP's KJV example because of the convention (beginning as early as the Septuagint) of representing the divine name by the word "Lord", which then has the knock on effect of requiring an article in English usage. ...


12

Is there any evidence that this phrase should be translated 'ganja'? No. Exodus 30:23 (ESV) reads: Take the finest spices: of liquid myrrh 500 shekels, and of sweet-smelling cinnamon half as much, that is, 250, and 250 of aromatic cane (qənêh-bōśem) The OP points out: there is a speculation that kaneh bosem is a plural form of kaneh bos. ...


12

The symbolism of the death of the firstborn is explained at the very beginning as corresponding to Israel being God's firstborn son. Pharaoh refused to release God's firstborn son, therefore Pharaoh's punishment is that he loses his firstborn son (Exodus 4:22-23, NRSV): Then you shall say to Pharaoh, “Thus says the Lord: Israel is my firstborn son. I said ...


11

In the Jewish understanding, every negative commandment of the Torah (the Five Books of Moses, i.e. Genesis through Deuteronomy) consists of two parts, a notice of what a violation would encompass, and a second mention to indicate the punishment. If you have additional references to a command, they must be teaching something else. See Introduction to Sifra....


11

(This answer is from a Christian perspective.) Since this question deals with the significance of the imagery, it is helpful to look at other places in Scripture that use similar imagery. 1) 1 Kings 18:30-32 recounts a time when Elijah rebuilt one of these altars after it had been torn down: Then Elijah said to all the people, “Now come to me.” So they ...


11

I've had some thoughts on this that don't quite answer the question, but are offered by way of response to the question. (As my comment suggests, my hunch is that the question may be unanswerable, but I'm not in a position to know that!) The response comes in three parts: first, some general observations about the Exodus plagues between science and biblical ...


11

This is a question that has caused problems with commentators and interpreters for centuries. Speaking most strictly, Cush and Midia are not the same place. Midia was on the Arabian peninsula (in the region of Jordan and Saudi Arabia today) while Cush proper was in the Sudan and Ethiopia region. In fact, the Septuagint uniformly translates Cush with Ethiopia....


10

Calvin, Gill citing Maimonides, and Mathew Henry all give the reason as the prevention of idolatry. Drawn from them: Such an altar is easily thrown down to prevent idolatry associated with it. This would remove the temptation of making it into a sort of graven image. The other nations cut stones for their altars Many holiness laws have them not do things ...


10

In addition Frank Luke's excellent answer, I've found some additional material that might be of interest. Duane A. Garrett (coauthor of A Modern Grammar for Biblical Hebrew) writes on Exodus 6:2c-3: But the Hebrew text, as Francis I. Andersen points out, contains a case of noncontiguous parallelism that translators have not recognized: “I am Yahweh...and ...


10

Thesis The Mosaic law for a woman suffering the violent end of her pregnancy covers an exception to the "eye for an eye" principle. This law was not able, nor did it claim, to restore circumstances to their prior state. Rather, it was intended to provide a measure of justice and deterrence. To requote a more modern translation with a bit more context: ...


10

As Frank Luke points out, the Hebrew word "kinah" (קנאה) as in "El kanna" in Exodus 20:5 (אל קנא) in both in OT Hebrew and in modern, is both jealous and zealous at the same time, and can have either positive or negative moral value depending on the subtext. The name "Cain" in the story of Creation apparently comes from the same root, meaning someone who ...


10

There are several major lines of interpretation: A number of commentators over the years1 have made a connection between this incident and the provision in Numbers 5:11-31, wherein a woman suspected of adultery is given a mixture of water and dust to drink that are to cause visible outworkings of her guilt. The connection between idolatry and adultery ...


10

The singular usage of "foot" and "shoe"/"sandal" in Joshua 5:15 is the collective singular (יחיד קיבוצי) that is found in all historical layers of Hebrew from the OT1 to modern Hebrew2. This is not a question about feet, or shoes, or about historical interpretation or cultural analysis, so those tags can be dropped. Four examples from the 14 OT verses that ...


9

The commingling of life and death was sacrilegious in the Hebrew Bible. For example, animals that are scavengers (lobster, shrimp, swine, dogs, vultures, lions and tigers, etc.) may thrive by habit on waste (garbage, refuse, scum, and/or other dead and decayed creatures), and thus they are unclean. Such animals could not be used for human consumption or ...


9

Might be 32:11 rather than 34:11. Classical Hebrew does not include consistency of person or voice in the same way that modern English does. Not only is the language different, the idiom is different. You can see this all over the Psalms - what appear to us to be jarring changes of person, voice and subject within a verse or two. Ex 32:11 sounds fine to me, ...


9

There's a subtle shift in how the narrative refers to Pharaoh and the army part way through the account. We can see the first method in the first question: Q: Does the Pharaoh actually leave with the army to chase the Israelites? A: Yes Exodus 14:7 So he made ready his chariot and took his army with him, (ESV) The Pharaoh is spoken of directly. Prior to ...


9

The manna is called לֶחֶם, which can mean bread, but also refers to any meal: for example, the daily sacrifice of meat is also לֶחֶם (Numbers 28:2). So when the manna is called לֶחֶם (Exodus 16:4, etc.), it doesn't mean it was actual bread. In this case, we are told explicitly that it was not actual bread. When the layer of dew lifted, there on the ...


8

I don't know of any scholar who denies that Hammurabi wrote a code of laws before Moses received the Ten Commandments and the accompanying law. So if the question is: Did Moses invent the idea of having a written code of laws, the answer is clearly "no". But if the question is: Were the specific set of laws in the Ten Commandments et al not really written ...


8

It should not be assumed that since the modern Hebrew word for "crocodile" is tannin that the word meant the same thing in the time of Biblical Hebrew. Sometimes lingual shifts are minor, but other times they are significant. For example, in Biblical Hebrew, 'olam means "for length of days" (often understood as the closest term to eternity preserved in ...


8

Frequently, an "Angel of the LORD" will appear in passages throughout the Bible to bring a message to an individual. In these instances, the speech used is always that of God himself. Tradition held that messages came with the full authority, weight, and force of the person who sent it. This messenger was an extension of the originator of the messenger ...


8

OP (bold added): Exod 23: 17 Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord GOD. According to Exodus only males were allowed to appear before the Lord in the annual feasts,so how can we understand the above text? No, Exodus 23:17 does not delimit attendance at festivals to "your males" (זְכוּרְךָ) -- rather, it explicitly ...


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