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14

I regret that I do not have access to the article by Johnston, but I understand his gist from Susan’s answer. First of all, the argument that “research has failed to turn up any evidence for the use of eunuchs as officials in Egypt” is likely to convince only those who believe that the story of Joseph is an authentic record of historic events. It will not ...


13

The word used to describe Potiphar's relationship with Pharaoh (37:36, 39:1) is sārı̂s, which is indeed commonly glossed "eunuch" (e.g. BDB; cf. LXX εὐνοῦχος). However, to my knowledge no major English translation, including the KJV, translates it thus in this pericope (rather "officer" or "official"). There are several reasons for this, but perhaps the most ...


10

There's a subtle shift in how the narrative refers to Pharaoh and the army part way through the account. We can see the first method in the first question: Q: Does the Pharaoh actually leave with the army to chase the Israelites? A: Yes Exodus 14:7 So he made ready his chariot and took his army with him, (ESV) The Pharaoh is spoken of directly. Prior to ...


6

The pharaoh was Apries, who ruled from 589 to 570 BCE and was known as Pharaoh Hophra in Jeremiah 44:30. Peter C. Craigie (Ezekiel, page 220) explains that Hophra sent an army to assist King Zedekiah fight off the invading Babylonians. Ezekiel likens the Egyptian defeat to a broken arm. To those among the exiled Jews who thought the Egyptians would risk ...


6

Is there some link between the Egyptians refusing to eat with the Hebrews and the fact they were shepherds? - Yes. Khnum (𓎸𓅱𓀭) Sacrifice of rams, sheep & goats was detestable to the Egyptians, because Egyptians worshiped a false ram-idol named Khnum thought to be the creator of humanity by molding humans from clay. In context of Genesis 43:32 & ...


5

The Bible does not give obvious answers, but clues. Genesis 46:34 & 47:3 need to be taken together. First, Joseph tells his brothers to tell Pharaoh they herd cattle, but they actually tell him they are "feeders of a flock" (or, 'shepherds'). Why? Well, Egyptologist David M. Rohl explains that: "The Anakim pharaonic dynasty was referred ...


5

Joseph was pretending (as a ruse) to make himself look like a typical pagan ruler so as not to raise the suspicions of his brothers. Of course he would claim that he used the special cup for divination. According to Barnes (as per comments in Gen 44:5) and the Cambridge Commentary, such "hydromancy" was common for ancient rulers. However, Joseph ...


4

In Gen 37 we have a classic example of ancient trading of slaves who were traded a common property. V28 says that the brothers sold Joseph to Midianite/Ishmaelite traders for 20 shekels of silver:- So when the Midianite traders passed by, his brothers pulled Joseph out of the pit and sold him for twenty shekels of silver to the Ishmaelites, who took him to ...


4

The commentaries I consulted did not have an authoritative answer nor a convincing suggestion. I suspect that what was being referred to is "scrying": Scrying (Wikipedia) One looks intently at any of a variety of reflective surfaces such as a metal cup, a crystal ball, a chicken's liver, obsidian stone (such as arrow heads), a pond, etc. and interprets the ...


4

In Genesis 44:5 Joseph told his steward to go after his brothers and charge them with stealing “the cup his master drinks from and also uses for divination.” When Joseph’s brothers were brought back Joseph asked them “Don’t you know that a man like me can find things out by divination?” (NIV) What Joseph said to his brothers was intended to suggest that his ...


4

The Hebrews dwelt in Goshen and probably drank from a different river, either a tributary or a distributary of the Nile, rather than from the Nile itself. If from a tributary, then that water would have not been affected by the state of the main river into which the tributary flowed. If from a distributary then divine providence may have caused the water to ...


4

Sacrifice of rams, sheep & goats was detestable to the Egyptians, because Egyptians worshiped a false ram-idol named Khnum thought to be the creator of humanity by molding humans from clay. In context of Genesis 43:32 & Genesis 46:31-34, the Ivri (עִבְרִי) / Hebrew (ἑβραιου) shepherds believed YHVH was The Creator not the ram-god Khnum. As shepherds, ...


3

The most common times chosen for the Exodus are sometime between 2670 BCE and 1759 BCE, during the Reign of Ahmose I who ruled 1539–1514 BCE, during the reign of Amenhotep II who ruled 1427–1401 BC, or 1427–1397 BC. Most scholars believe that it was one of the Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty The thinking behind these two dates are thus: For the first time ...


3

The question as posed appears to be confusing the Mari documents (which are of several kinds) with the Amarna letters. As one can see from the Mari link provided, it is clear that this is a site in what is now Syria - so, then, not a source of letters sent from Egypt. The letters sent from Egypt (also referred to in Webb's commentary, linked by OP) are the ...


3

Exodus 12:12b (and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the Lord) seems incongruous, both as the only reference anywhere in this narrative to the gods of Egypt and as breaking the flow of narrative. Reading Exodus 12:12a then 12:13, we can see a unity of text and a logical sequence in the narrative: Exodus 12:12a,13 (KJV): For I ...


3

The most prominent sea people in the Bible is the Tyrians from the Lebanese port of Tyre. Another name for Lebanon region is Phoenicia https://i.pinimg.com/originals/84/10/f3/8410f3f609e5b3385797280ee5156205.jpg. 1 Kings 5:1 When Hiram king of Tyre heard that Solomon had been anointed king to succeed his father David, he sent his envoys to Solomon, because ...


3

Absolutely. He even commands it. Leviticus 16:6-10 NASB 6 Then Aaron shall offer the bull as the [i]sin offering, which is for himself, so that he may make atonement for himself and for his household. 7 He shall then take the two goats and present them before the LORD at the doorway of the tent of meeting. 8 Aaron shall cast lots for the two goats, one lot ...


3

According to The New Ungers Bible Dictionary under the term GO'SHEN page 492 and 493 A northeastern section of the Egyptian Delta region usually called "the land of Goshen," "country of Goshen" (Gen. 45:10; Josh. 10:41), or simply "Goshen" (Gen. 47:27) and "the land of Rameses" (47:11; cf. Ex. 12:37). In this region ...


3

For some inexplicable reason, the number "five" is a recurring theme in the story of Joseph. Here is a sample: Gen 41:34 - Let Pharaoh appoint commissioners over the land to take a fifth of the harvest of Egypt during the seven years of abundance. Gen 43:34 - When portions were served to them from Joseph's table, Benjamin's portion was five times ...


3

For at least three of the 10 plagues of Egypt, the Israelites did not experience anything: Plague 5: Ex 9:4, 6 - no Israelite effect Plague 7: Ex 9:26 - no Israelite effect Plague 9: Ex 10:33 - no Israelite effect Plague 10: The Israelites avoided the death of the first-born by painting their door posts with lamb blood Whether the Israelites were affected ...


3

Genesis 39:20 says that Potiphar put Joseph into the prison where the king’s prisoners were confined. The NIV Study Bible makes this comment: Potiphar put Joseph in the “house of the captain of the guard” (40:3) – certainly not the worst prison available. There is no information to back that up. However, the ESV Study Bible makes this comment: The law ...


3

Genesis 12:4 So Abram departed, as the Lord had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran. Genesis 21:5 And Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him. Genesis 25:26 And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel; and his name was ...


2

During the night of the Passover each house in Egypt not marked with blood was a house in which a single death occurred: And it came to pass at midnight that the LORD struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of livestock. ...


2

Really, the question revolves around the word כל. If we believe this term has always an absolute acceptation (meaning) this could trigger the paradox 'collen ndhlovu' enhances. But, Are we obliged to apply an absolute acceptation (meaning) to the term כל, in this context? Not necessarily. A parallel example will help us to understand. In Exo 9:25 this term ...


2

The Ishmaelites (members of the Midianite merchants [caravan from Gilead]) saved Joseph & sold Joseph to Potiphar. [1] Once Yosef was in the pit, his brothers had a meal & saw [who] coming? [Bereishit 37:25] * יִשְׁמְעֵאלִ֔ים Yishmaelim = "Ishmaelites". [2] What does Yehudah immediately suggest to his brothers? [Bereishit 37:27] "Come, ...


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