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In all societies, there must be a convention about when the cycle of the day begins such as: In most modern societies it is mid-night In some farming communities the start and end of the day is sun-rise In modern astronomical calculation it is mid-day In ancient Jewish and Hebrew reckoning, the day began with sun-set. One can see this in several OT ...


15

Disclaimer on Perspective For the record, I do not hold to the Documentary Hypothesis (JEDP theory or otherwise) as another answer here gives as a solution. I believe the Pentateuch was largely (if not perhaps wholly) scribed by a single inspired author, Moses. As such, the Pentateuch should be looked at as a unity, including Gen 1:1-2:3 in relation to Gen ...


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This theory is pretty credible. There a great deal of scholars which entertain this idea who are collectively known as Panbabylonists. This seems to raise the ire of many purists who would like to believe that Genesis was influenced by God alone. In my opinion, however many fail to consider the idea that perhaps sections of Genesis were not derived from ...


14

Short Answer: No. This is a great question, and I'm glad you asked it. This verse is often used by Christian apologists to show that the Bible was ahead of its times in its scientific claims. While this sounds convincing to modern readers of English translations, it is a very poor argument to use. Exhibit A: The word "stretch" To many, the idea of God "...


13

Hebrew ṣelāʽ (thus the correct transliteration) is a clear cognate of Akkadian ṣēlu and Arabic ḍilʽ and ḍilaʽ, all of which primarily mean “rib”, but are also metaphorically used to mean “side”. They are very widely attested in Akkadian and Arabic and leave no doubt as to their meaning. It is a basic Semitic noun for a body part. From a linguistic point of ...


12

There are several creation accounts in antiquity from two main areas in the fertile crescent; Babylon/Sumer and Egypt. I will attempt to summarize and compare/contrast points of each creation myth with Genesis, so I will apologize at the outset to readers for the long answer. I'm sure the OP did not realize what a tall order this was, and as curiousdannii ...


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OP question #1: Can "Yom" in Gen 1 be translated "aeon" meaning "an age". The short answer is "not quite". יוֹם (yôm) can refer to some unspecified period of time, as in "the day of the LORD" (as e.g. in Amos 5:18), but that is usually regarded as quite a specialized meaning. Typically, the "unspecified period" is used with the plural, "days", however: ...


12

Note: Since some gap theory arguments rely on phrasing in the King James, I will be quoting from the KJV unless otherwise noted. All verses will be examined in the KJV, other versions will be listed if they correct or add to the discussion. The Gap Theory, sometimes called the Ruin and Reconstruction Theory of creation, postulates that an unspecified amount ...


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Firmament The primary reason the word "firmament" has been updated in modern translation (using the term "changed" is incorrect - new translations start with the original language, not the KJV text) is because language changes. While the word was an ordinary one in 1611 meaning something like The arch or vault of heaven overhead, in ...


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Not poetry, but Prologue Gordon J. Wenham notes in The Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 1: Genesis 1-15 on page 46 ...[Genesis 1:1–2:3] stands apart from the narratives that follow in style and content and makes it an overture to the whole work. On page 50 he continues: Extrabiblical creation stories from the ancient Near East are usually poetic, but Gen 1 ...


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There are, though, passages from the Greek translation of the Hebrew, the LXX, that might be mentioned. They are: Gen.10:10; "beginning of the kingdom of him"-"arche tes basileias autou." Gen.49:3 ; "first of the children of me"-"arche teknon mou." Deut.21:17;"first of the children of him"-"arche teknon ...


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Interesting question! I'm not sure it admits of a definitive answer, but some observations suggest one possibility. As noted by OP, the typical divine response to each day's acts of creation tends to be "impersonal": וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב wayyarʾ ĕlōhîm kî-ṭôb and God saw that [it was] good This is the response in Gen 1:10, 12, 18, 21, and 25. ...


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The Hebrew text of Genesis 1:1–2 states, א בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ ב וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם First, notice that v. 2 commences with a disjunctive vav, i.e. וְהָאָרֶץ. One website explains the disjunctive relationship as follows: The ...


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Good question. While no state of maturity for Adam and Eve at creation is ever explicitly stated in the Bible, there are some texts where we can infer something about their state. Adam is created to work the garden and care for it (Genesis 2:15). He then names the animals (Genesis 2:19, 20). This is not something that an infant could do. Adam and Eve are to ...


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Not only that the Person of Logos, who after the historical incarnation/adoption of human nature, was also named Jesus Christ, existed before this historical incarnation, but He existed before all history and all creation. Now, there is nothing but a binary opposition of Creator (God) whose realm is Eternity and creation (universe) of which realm is time, ...


9

Having researched and discussed this verse in depth a few years ago for 4-5 months, I would say yes, that is exactly what the verse is saying, though many are far too quick to reach for an alternate reading. In order to properly understand this verse, a few things need to be understood... First, when we look to the lexical field (or sometimes called the ...


9

Short Answer: Based on the textual evidence, it may not be a third usage, but in fact the same as the second usage. In other words, the land (as opposed to the waters or heavens) was formless and void. There are two key pieces of evidence from the text that support this conclusion: Gen. 1:2 does not merely say the earth was formless and void, but also that ...


9

The view one takes on the credibility of the assertion is going to depend largely on one's presuppositions and level of allowance for the Bible text to speak for itself. If the Torah (Law, i.e. "teaching" is the idea in Hebrew, not just the actual commands and prohibitions), which includes Genesis, was formed contra what critical scholars claim, and instead ...


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My question is: Is there a place in Scripture from which we can draw a dogmatic conclusion as to whether Adam was created as a fully developed man, or as a new born babe? Based on the nature of the literary genre of Genesis, and comparisons of Gen.1-3 with other origin stories of ancient near eastern literature I would say the answer to your question is ...


9

They fly across the expanse of the heavens. The word פָּנִים pānîm (lit. "faces") is used in "frozen union" with certain prepositions to form constructions that function syntactically as prepositions, linking a verbal idea to a noun.1 That is, they allow a noun to specify something about the nature of the verb. This is no different from other prepositional ...


9

The Bible, in Jude vs 13 translates the Greek word 'planetes' as 'wandering stars'. It was known that these 'stars' wandered inexplicably but it was assumed that all celestial objects were stars and circled earth, so their perturbations were strange and 'wandering'. Only when it was worked out that they were circling the sun (not the earth) did it become ...


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Genesis 2:2 וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיֹּום הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְלַאכְתֹּו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיֹּום הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתֹּו אֲשֶׁר עָשָֽׂה׃ The word translated as "rest" in English, is actually the conjugated word from which we get the English word Sabbath, which actually means to "cease doing". וַיִּשְׁבֹּת or by its root: שָׁבַת Here's ...


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A theological answer would indicate that Rabbinic Jewish and early Christian thinkers did not attribute bodily form or sex to God, though most attributed male gender owing to the preponderance of typically masculine imagery and grammatical forms for God they saw in the Bible. Growing gender awareness has challenged traditional assumptions, and most Jewish ...


8

”When did God speak these waters into being?” The answer is given in the Hebrew text בראשׁית ברא אלהים את השׁמים ואת הארץ The fact is that God ברא (created) the השׁמים (heavens - plural) in (the) בראשׁית and so that’s when the waters were made when the heavens were made. In Biblical cosmology the heavens were made of water hence המים (waters - also plural) ...


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While nowhere does the Bible explicitly state that the 'raqia' is solid or firm, there was a longstanding and well established belief regarding cosmology in antiquity which implies it. Furthremore, the the firm nature of the firmament is inherent in the word רָקִ֖יעַ itself. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament shows that the word רָקִ֖יעַ (...


7

A little known fact that is often left out of this type of discussion is that we ourselves do not have 24-hour days. It also depends on what definition of "day" you use, you could use the "one full rotation of the Earth around its axis" (rotation period or sidereal day) or "the time it takes for the sun to go back to its position in the sky" (solar day). ...


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John Gill (1) says about two places, a field near Damascus and the Mount Moriah: some say it was a field near Damascus; the Targum of Jonathan is, “he went and dwelt in Mount Moriah, to till the ground out of which he was created;” and so other Jewish writers say (F16), the gate of paradise was near Mount Moriah, and there Adam dwelt after he was cast ...


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