43

First Enoch (or the Ethiopic Enoch) stands alone among the Jewish apocalypses for length, diversity, and richness.1 No other ancient non-canonical work influenced the Jewish world of the first century as much as Enoch.2 With its interest in suffering, evil, demons, and the Last Judgment, Enoch helps bridge the gap in life and thought between Malachi and ...


25

No Certain Answer to Give Disclaimer and Explanation of Citations and Notations: The evidence here is largely gleaned from Protestant source material (my tradition), and is presented in a way that argues toward Job being an ancient composition (my view); but the evidence also mentions there are numerous other views on this. A bibliography of all referenced ...


11

As a prior answer has examined where Enoch failed in canonicity, this one shall turn to the Book of Revelation to determine what factors led the church to recognize its canonicity. Though a popular genre, few apocalyptic works found their way into the New Testament canon. The most obvious exception comes to the modern world as The Revelation to John or The ...


9

The Muratorian fragment isn't simply a list of books included in the canon, but also a description of them. It's description of the Gospel of Luke makes it very clear that they believed it was written by Luke: The third book of the Gospel [is that] according to Luke. Luke, "the" physician, after the ascension of Christ, when Paul had taken him with him as ...


8

From the book The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration by Metzger and Ehrman, chapter 1, The making of ancient books, page 11-12: In the Greco-Roman world, literary works were customarily published in the format of a scroll, made of papyrus or parchment. The papyrus scroll was made by gluing together, side by side, ...


8

The Book of Revelation had a mixed reception among the early Church Fathers. This is exemplified by Eusebius, who (Ecclesiastical History, VII, xxv) quotes Bishop Dionysius the Great of Alexandria: Some indeed of those before our time rejected and altogether impugned the book, examining it chapter by chapter and declaring it to be unintelligible and ...


8

The cannon of the Torah and of the Prophets were settled by 4th century BCE (earlier for the Torah), and we don't have much evidence as to what criteria were used. We don't know which books were most controversial, and we don't know which books were excluded. The cannon of the Writings was settled around the 1st or 2nd century CE. Since this was after ...


7

This was not, perhaps, Leon Morris's finest moment (quote is on p. 17, originally published 1974), although he certainly wasn't alone in assuming this datum. Neither Howard Marshall, nor John Nolland make mention of Marcion in their circumspect discussions of the attribution of authorship of the third (canonical) gospel -- simply to cite two subsequent "...


6

The answer is that the Book of Jashar, or Sefer HaYashar, ספר הישר, is lost now*, and was already lost at the time of canonization, whether Christian or Jewish, and what is lost cannot be canonical. The Biblical references to it are: II Samuel 1:18 Joshua 10:13 The works that we do have that go by the name of Book of Jashar, or Sefer HaYashar are: A ...


4

The Book of Revelations is one of the most controversial books of the Bible, given the Apocalyptic nature of the messages it carries. However, in regards to it's authenticity it has always been seen as being written by the Apostle John on the Isle of Patmos-a barren 30 sq. mi. island in the Aegean Sea where both common and political prisoners were held. Rick ...


4

Revelations is certainly the last book of the bible; however, canonicity wasn't resolved concerning the New Testament until the Council of Trent in 1546; in which it was established that 27 books which we refer to as New Testament were confirmed as "Articles of Faith", and "anathema" was ascribed to those that rejected them.(Reference: Canon of Trent) What ...


4

the book of Revelation (...) got accepted into the canonical New Testament of all the major branches of Christianity This is not true, Book of Revelation isn't accepted in Church of the East and its descendandts (Assyrian Church of the East). Can hermeneutics cast light on how this book overcame these barriers to admission to the canon? "Barriers" you ...


3

This is fairly uncomplicated. Prophetic utterances (= messages from God via a prophet) come in two types: Messages that are appropriate for inclusion in the Canon of Scripture and have content appropriate (as God see fit) for all the people that have and will read the Bible. Messages that only have relevance for the situation or person at the time and are ...


3

The Old Testament is the same as the Jewish Scripture, although not necessarily in the same order, and with some verses split up differently. It can be considered heritage for the most part, although Athanasius did not consider Esther to be Scriptural. The Apocrypha were never considered Scripture by the Jews. Again, Athanasius did not consider these ...


3

The word 'Gospel' is never applied to the records of Jesus' life by the Bible its self, rather it seems that the word is used of the message proclaimed, see for example: Matt. 4:23, Matt. 9:35, Matt. 11:5, Matt. 24:14, Matt. 26:13, Mk. 1:1, 14-15, Mk. 13:10, Mk. 14:9, Mk. 16:15, Lk. 4:18, Lk. 7:22, Lk. 9:6, Lk. 20:1, Acts 8:25, Acts 14:7, 21, Acts 15:7, Acts ...


2

Revelation (no 's') is an example of apocalyptic literature, a genre of religious writings common to the intertestamental period, though appearing in Scripture prior to this time in places like Ezekiel. Though this genre is different than, say, discourse or historical narrative, it was common and well recognized by the original audience. The genre is ...


2

It is so so easy to presume in our hindsight history that prophets only knew of what they spoke, but Malachi's perception of his prophetic place is fascinating to consider. Thank you for this question. Since so many prophetic authors (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Malachi, etc.) preface their words with something similar to "the word/vision of the Lord ...


2

The versification of the Bible is not inspired, and there are occasionally different ways of breaking up the text into chapters and verses. You can compare many translations here. The CEV is taking one option, and making the sentence "The dragon stood on the beach beside the sea." as a distinct verse. This is also the option taken by the NLT, CSB, GNT, ISV, ...


2

As stated in the other question, the main arguments against the authenticity of 2 Peter are: The argument against the authenticity of 2 Peter essentially rests on three observations: A few (admittedly significant) antenicaean father express doubts such as Origen; Eusebius (Ecclesiastical History vi 25, iii 3); Jerome, etc. This exacerbated by the fact until ...


2

Some the congregations in the NT had withing them legitimate prophets of God giving revelations from God. We see this several times such as Acts 15:32, 11:27, 13:1, 21:10, etc. Thus, when someone stood up and claimed to be a prophet with a message/revelation from God, the NT instruction was (as usual) practical: 1 Cor 14:22 - Tongues, then, are a sign, not ...


1

1 Thessalonians 5: 20 Do not despise prophecies, 21 but test everything; hold fast what is good. This implies that there were bad prophecies that failed the test. Since prophecies in the canon cannot fail, Paul was referring only to prophecies outside of the canon. How are we to test them? One way is found in Deuteronomy 18: 22 If what a prophet proclaims ...


1

I would add that the question of canon is effectively answered by any individual individually and or by any given group corporately. We've no history of any universally recognized individual or group within either Judaism or Christianity that has been or is positioned to do so. In a word, the word is what you are willing to hear. A fragment of whichever ...


1

Tau's answer ends with this note: So while it is highly speculative that John imagined he wrote the last book, it is no stretch to say that John saw the final day, in which those who were redeemed by God from all humanity would dwell with Him for all eternity. Theologically this is surely the most salient point that can be made—whether or not John self ...


1

Once the New Testament books were placed together in one volume, it was natural to place the gospels first, followed by all the epistles and then place Revelation last, whether or not we think of Revelation as a prophecy of the end times. John would not have known what books of the New Testament were yet to be written; in fact there was no thought given to ...


1

At the time Second Peter was written, there was not yet a New Testament canon, so the author could not have thought of Paul's epistles as canonical. However, the evidence of 2 Peter 3:15-16 is that he did think of them as 'sacred writings'. According to Strong's Concordance, γραφὰς is used 51 times in the New Testament, always of holy Scripture, so we can ...


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