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5

I don't put much stock in numerology normally, but I think this is one of the cases where the numerological meaning of twelve, the complete people of God, is more important than trying to identify which specific individuals are being referred to, if specific individuals were ever even in the mind of the author. Consider how the Twelve Tribes of Israel is an ...


5

Peter, Paul, and John provide some rather concise answers: 1 Corinthians 15:1, 3-4 1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; 3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; 4 And that he ...


4

Therefore, I urge you, brothers, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God—this is your spiritual act of worship. Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is—his good, pleasing and perfect ...


3

The Greek noun, ἀπόστολος (apostelos), most often refers to the original 12 apostles (Matt 10:2, Mark 3:14, Luke 22;14, etc.). However, it also refers to others as apostles who were not part of the original 12 such as: Jesus, Heb 3:1 Paul, Rom 1;1, 11;13, 1 cor 1:1, 9, 15:9, 2 Cor 1:1, Gal 1;1, Eph 1:1, Col 1;1, 1 Thess 1:1, 1 Tim 1:1, 2:7, 2 Tim 1:1, Titus ...


3

The simple and direct answer to your main question of what was the name of the other "apostle" (disciple) on the Road to Emmaus, is that the bible does not tell us. He remains unnamed. Now, as part of your back up support, you speculate that there could have been a 13th apostle. In arriving at that speculation I believe you may have made a few ...


2

John Shelby Spong, in Born of a Woman: A Bishop Rethinks the Birth of Jesus, page 109, points to the large number of discrepancies between Acts chapter 9 and Paul’s epistles. Because of this, I look at both Acts of the Apostles and Paul's epistles in order to establish the events that took place. In Galatians 1:12-17, Paul says that no one taught him the ...


2

Therefore I urge you, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living and holy sacrifice, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service of worship. 2 And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and ...


2

While Paul eventually would be called and chosen later on in Acts, and he would at that point likewise begin to preach and teach as an apostle of God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, I think to best answer the original question regarding exactly what the Apostles Doctrine was, as of Acts 2:42, it is important to stick with the Twelve before moving on to ...


2

The "Apostles' Doctrine" is what the apostles kept repeating. This was summarized in what is believed to be the first creed as recorded in 1 Cor 15:3-7 - For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that He was buried, that He was raised on the third day according to the ...


2

Christian sources I have encountered regarding what an apostle is generally come from the Roman world. An apostle is viewed as an "emissary" or "envoy": An apostle (/əˈpɒsəl/), in its most literal sense, is an emissary, from Greek ἀπόστολος (apóstolos), literally "one who is sent off", from the verb ἀποστέλλειν (apostéllein), &...


2

Can 1 Corinthians 15:3-9, particularly verse 8, be used as a proof-text for the claim that there are no more apostles after Paul? No. 1 Corinthians 15:8 8 Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me. "Last of all" relates contextually to Paul being the least of all those Jesus personally appeared to since he is a murderer of the ...


2

Does it follow from the text that the offices of apostle and prophet were meant for foundational purposes, constrained to a specific period of history, and since that foundation was already laid we are no longer in need of them? This is analogical reasoning outside of first-order logic. Analogical reasoning is not 100% proof but it does carry some weight. ...


1

Given that the "prophets" to which Paul refers in Eph 2:20 are the OT prophets, by the logic of Sam Storms and David Allen, there should have been no more prophets in the NT, but that is false. Paul's statement in Eph 2:20 is not discussing spiritual; gifts but spiritual legacy of the Church which is the Christian church's inheritance of OT as ...


1

No. Paul was the last in the series of Jesus' post resurrection appearances which he has just finished enumerating as part of the Gospel which he preached to them. These appearances do not and can not always represent the occasion of the calling to apostleship since the appearances listed were to Cephas (an apostle already), the Twelve (apostles already), ...


1

Can 1 Corinthians 15:3-9, particularly verse 8, be used as a proof-text for the claim that there are no more apostles after Paul? This is a matter of definition. How does one define apostle? One could use 1 Corinthians 15:8 as the definition of an apostle. Then by definition, Paul was the last one. But I think this definition is too strict and wrong. There ...


1

One might as well attempt to add a thirteenth tribe to the children of Israel. And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, 11 Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; 12 ...


1

You say in your introduction “Paul is encouraging his audience to become a new being,”, but this isn’t quite correct. To understand these two verses requires understanding ‘being reborn’. 2 COR 5:17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new. First, the Greek structure clearly ...


1

In John 14:14 Jesus told the Apostles "And I will do whatever you ask in My name, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son." This conversation took place in the private party of the last suppers with the 12 disciples. So, the referent "you" referred to the selected disciples. Does this promise apply to anyone and everyone from that ...


1

John uses the 2nd person plural form of the verb αἰτέω (aiteō). The King James and other archaic versions correctly preserve the original Greek by using the pronoun "ye": Therefore I say unto you, What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them. The last verse that explicitly states to whom Jesus was ...


1

Irrespective of the two possible interpretations of verse 3 that you suggest, nothing in verse 3 (or verses 2-4) alone, as you are asking, excludes Peter from being the author of Hebrews. The audience, as indicated in verse 3, are those unto whom the great salvation (τηλικαύτης σωτηρίας) that at the first began to be spoken by the Lord (ἥτις ἀρχὴν λαβοῦσα ...


1

The problem here is a bit different: the "twelve" were followers of Jesus before his death and revelation. At that point Saul was the antithesis of such a person, and continued in fire and persecution for quite some time. He himself considered himself by the Roman name he adopted for himself, and would be among the last to lay claim to being 'one of the ...


1

In the salutation at the beginning of his letter to the Romans, Paul wants to make clear his qualification to expound the gospel. Therefore, the "we" in verse 5 is tied to his apostleship & the grace he has received. He links both to the "resurrection of Jesus Christ our Lord" as well as the foundations of holy Scripture & the prophets. Then you ...


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