Which four kingdoms are represented in the statue of Nebuchadnezzar's dream in Daniel, Chapter 2 ?
Nebuchadnezzar was the second king of the eleventh dynasty of the Neo-Babylonian Empire,
whose capital was Babylon. His kingdom, together with that of Ancient Egypt, were offshoots of
the former Neo-Assyrian Empire, which splintered shortly before Daniel's time, and among whose
capital cities we find Assur, Nimrod, Nineveh, and Harran, all of biblical fame (see Genesis 10:8-12).
By the mid-sixth century BC, they, along with the Median Empire, were part of Cyrus' Persian
Empire, which, in its turn, was swallowed up by Alexander's short-lived Macedonian Empire.
After his untimely death, mentioned along with the wars of the Diadochi in Daniel's eleventh chapter,
the latter becomes known as the Seleucid Empire, named after one of Alexander's generals, and
then as the Parthian Empire. Simultaneously, we witness the rise of Rome, whose help the
five Maccabeean brethren, founders of the Hasmonean dynasty, employed in their fight against
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (see 1 Maccabees 8), whose sacrilegious actions were also prophesied
by Daniel (see Daniel 11 and 1 Maccabees 1).