Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Question about NET note and Symbols for Codex Sinaiticus

I have a basic question about NET Bible footnote. The note for Matt 17:21 says: Many important MSS (א* B Θ 0281 33 579 892 pc e ff1 sys,c sa) do not include 17:21 "But this kind does not go out ...
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3answers
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What does Isaiah mean by saying that the LORD's "hand is stretched out still"? (Is. 5:25;9:12,17,21;10:4)

I heard explained that it means that the LORD will still extend mercy in spite of sins. I have also heard that it means just the opposite-that an extended hand in ancient Near Eastern context means a ...
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1answer
344 views

Why is the KJV version of Matthew 5:44 so much longer than other Bibles?

From my search the KJV includes the phrase, "do good to them that hate you" But that phrase doesn't seem to exist in the versions I typically use. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=...
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What was Queen Esther’s Relationship to Mordechai?

Do we know what was Queen Esther's relationship to Mordecai, based on textual variants1 in the Book of Esther? 1 Queen Esther’s Relationship to Mordechai in Jewish and Christian tradition
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Acts 16:16: Meaning of πύθωνος (Textus Receptus) and πύθωνα (NA28)

Acts 16:16 according to the Textus Receptus (Estienne, 1550): Ἐγένετο δὲ πορευομένων ἡμῶν εἰς προσευχὴν παιδίσκην τινὰ ἔχουσαν πνεῦμα πύθωνος ἀπαντῆσαι ἡμῖν ἥτις ἐργασίαν πολλὴν παρεῖχεν τοῖς ...
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Possible Word Inversion in Romans 9:5?

I couldn't help but notice, while pondering on another question, that inverting the current word order of the Greek text of Romans 9:4-5 by replacing the final o on from the middle of verse 5 with on ...
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4answers
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Fruit of the 'Spirit' or 'Light' in Ephesians 5:9?

Ephesians 5:9 [9]_ ὁ γὰρ καρπὸς τοῦ φωτὸς ἐν πάσῃ ἀγαθωσύνῃ καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ _ (KJV)Ephesians 5:9 (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;) ...
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964 views

Why is "Joseph" used in some translations of Luke 2:33?

It seems that most English translations of Luke 2:33 use "father", but the 1599 Geneva Bible, the King James Version, and the Young's Literal Translation use "Joseph". It seems that this difference is ...
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551 views

What has changed in Biblical scholarship since the Jerusalem Bible (1966) was published?

I have been reading through the Jerusalem Bible, published by the Roman Catholic Church, and have found a lot of pleasure in the copious footnotes and the surprisingly readable text. Obviously the ...
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How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem?

How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem? Answer1 2 Kings 8:26 (KJV): Two and twenty years old Answer2 2 Chronicles 22:2 (KJV): Forty and two years old
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Should we take up our cross daily or not?

In Luke 9:23 in the HCSB Jesus is quoted saying "If anyone wants to come with Me, he must deny himself, take up his cross daily and follow Me." In the parallel passages in Mark 8, and ...
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464 views

What is the BEST Textual Cristicism argument for keeping "us" in Revelation 5:9 and 10?

There seems to be a lot of information as to why Rev 5:9 should be read as "them" instead of us, but what are the strongest arguments from a textual manuscript criticism basis for keeping the TR "us?"
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Two Jozabad's in 1 Chronicles 12:20?

I found this interesting and wondered if anyone had anything to say about it. 1 Chronicles 12 20 As he went to Ziklag, there fell to him of Manasseh, Adnah, and Jozabad, and Jediael, and Michael, ...
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Why do most modern Greek text editions drop "that ye should not obey the truth" in Gal 3:1?

When I saw the Greek for Gal 3:1 I was surprised to find how modern literal translations of ESV, NRSV, NASB seem to drop the clause τῇ ἀληθείᾳ μὴ πείθεσθαι (that ye should not obey the truth). For ...
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Regarding Asaph (אָ֫סָ֥ף ), why do digital versions of KJV Bible remove his name from Psalms 73-83?

Regarding Asaph (אָ֫סָ֥ף), why do certain online KJV texts remove his name from Psalms 73-83, such as Bible Gateway's? If we only read the KJV, the Tehillim (Psalms) may appear to be written by King ...
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3answers
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What role should hermeneutics be given in determining the "original" text?

The cataloging of a textual variations requires a decision on the primary text and variations are placed in the apparatus. Initially, the primary reading was taken from the majority of manuscripts. ...
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263 views

What factors attest Nehemiah 7:68 is, or is not original to Nehemiah?

Nehemiah 7:68, is missing from most Hebrew manuscripts. This fact suggests it was not in the autograph (original). Nevertheless, it is included in most English translations: 67 besides their male ...
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2answers
892 views

Duplicate bible verses - Does it also duplicate in the original text? [closed]

I read the Proverbs and I suddenly notice that there is duplicated text PROVERBS 22:3 The prudent sees danger and hides himself, but the simple go on and suffer for it. PROVERBS 27:12 The ...
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Saviour of all people, ESPECIALLY of those who believe

1 Timothy 4:10 reads: That is why we labor and strive, because we have put our hope in the living God, who is the Savior of all people, and especially of those who believe. My question is, is ...
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Should Genesis 8:10 read “he waited” or “he waited anxiously”?

In Genesis 8:10 the first word in the MT is ויחל. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) suggests emending to וייחל. Everyone seems to accept the BHS and translate this as "waited" just as if the ...
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Who are "the sons of disobedience" in Colossians 3:6?

If this variant represents the original text, then who are "the sons of disobedience" (τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας, tous huious tēs apeitheias) in Colossians 3:6? NA28: δι᾿ ἃ ἔρχεται ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ ...
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Galatians 4:6 -- Why do King James and NKJV say "your hearts" and other translations say "our hearts"

The NIV for example reads, And because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!" The NKJV reads, And because you are sons, God has sent forth ...
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Acts 11:20: Ἕλληνας or Ἑλληνιστάς?

In Acts 11:20, of the words Ἕλληνας and Ἑλληνιστάς, which reading is more probable according to textual criticism? Which reading is more probable according to context? What is the meaning of each word?...
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2 Kings 13:21 - וַיֵּלֶךְ - who went?

2 kings 13:21 וַיְהִי הֵם קֹבְרִים אִישׁ, וְהִנֵּה רָאוּ אֶת-הַגְּדוּד, וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אֶת-הָאִישׁ, בְּקֶבֶר אֱלִישָׁע; וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּגַּע הָאִישׁ, בְּעַצְמוֹת אֱלִישָׁע, וַיְחִי, וַיָּקָם עַל-...
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Which Tobit 1:1 genealogy is closer to the original?

What did the genealogy look like in the original version of Tobit? Did it look like the one in Vaticanus, or like the one in Sinaiticus, or neither? Tobit 1:1: Codex Vaticanus B — ΒΙΒΛΟΣ ΛΟΓΩΝ ...
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The parallel account of The First Book of Samuel and Biblical inerrancy

I saw in the first book of Samuel some very similar accounts that leads me to believe that they come from different traditions. For example 1 Samuel 24 and 1 Samuel 26 or Saul throwing a spear at ...
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"an heir through God" (Gal 4:7 NAS) or "an heir of God through Christ" (Gal 4:7 KJV)?

Galatians 4:7 NASB Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and if a son, then an heir through God. KJV Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of ...
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141 views

Acts 13:19-20: Accuracy of Greek Text and Reference of "the four-hundred and fifty" in Codex Sinaiticus

The Received Text on Acts 13:19-20 differs from such MSS as the Codex Sinaiticus (א), Alexandrinus (A), and the Codex Vaticanus (B). Questions: Is it possible that the Received Text is accurate? ...
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849 views

Hope or no hope in Job 13:15?

Job 13:15a NRSV: See, he will kill me; I have no hope ... ESV: Though he slay me, I will hope in him ... BHS: הֵן יִקְטְלֵנִי לֹא [לוֹ] אֲיַחֵל The difference rests on whether to prefer the ...
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Which Greek NT passage has proven to have the most variant readings? [closed]

The question here is not about trying to isolate which particular manuscript (extant document) has the most variations from some standard determination of the text. Rather, it is about which ...
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Why John 1:1 in (DRB)(Douay-Rheims Bible) is not literal translation from the Latin Vulgate?

John 1:1 in DRB (Douay-Rheims) is: "... and the Word was God." This is not literal translation from the Latin Vulgate. John 1:1 LV: "...et Deus erat Verbum." I think the literal English ...
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7answers
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What is the significance of the definite article in 1 Cor 14:2?

In John MacArthur's Bible Commentary, he says that in 1 Cor 14:2, before God there is no definite article so it could be translated "a god" instead of "God." In some Greek texts ...
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330 views

In Matthew 5:28, which variant, αὐτὴν or αὐτῆς, is the object of τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι?

The Textus Receptus (1550, Estienne) has the pronoun αὐτῆς as the object of the infinitive τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι, while the NA28 has αὐτὴν. Grammatically, which is the preferred reading? Which manuscripts ...
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232 views

Meaning of "pc" in the Nestle-Aland critical apparatus (Revelation 5.10)

In Which translation for Revelation 5:10 is correct?, this answer gives a helpful explanation of which readings appear in which manuscripts. I don't doubt the author's correctness! But I am struggling ...
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2answers
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Acts 5:31 - Does any reputable manuscript suggest that Jesus is God's Chief Agent

While doing research to answer a question on Christ Jesus being our Saviour, I noticed something strange in the New World Translation while reading Acts 5:31. The King James Version, New International ...
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411 views

Why KJV translated "Χριστοῦ" as "God" in Ephesians 5:21?

Ephesians 5:21 (DRB): Being subject one to another, in the fear of Christ. Ephesians 5:21 (KJB): Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God. KJV and NKJV, both versions translated ...
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How can we reconcile Genesis 1:24-26 & Genesis 2:18-20?

Genesis 1:24-26(KJV) 24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. 25 And God ...
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1answer
286 views

Why does the KJV not include the phrase "having his name" in Revelation 14:1?

King James Version 14:1 And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty [and] four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads. American ...
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7answers
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"In A Beginning" vs. "In THE beginning"? Different implications?

Possibly the most famous phrase in the Hebrew Bible is: "In the beginning." Anyone can recite it without ever having read the Hebrew Bible. But is that the accurate translation? With a background in ...
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What is the most accurate translation of μονογενὴς Θεὸς in John 1:18?

This question wants to determine the most accurate translation of μονογενὴς Θεὸς in John 1:18 under the assumption that it is the correct reading.* θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν ...
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Should it read גִלְעָד or גַלְעֵד?

Genesis 31:47-48 reads as follows: וַיִּקְרָא-לוֹ לָבָן, יְגַר שָׂהֲדוּתָא; וְיַעֲקֹב, קָרָא לוֹ גַּלְעֵד. מח וַיֹּאמֶר לָבָן, הַגַּל הַזֶּה עֵד בֵּינִי וּבֵינְךָ הַיּוֹם; עַל-כֵּן קָרָא-שְׁמוֹ, ...
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Theory to explain ordering of tribes in Numbers 13

I noticed two strange things about the the listing of the tribes in Numbers 13:4-15. Firstly, the order of the tribes is as follows: Reuben, Simon, Judah, Issachar, Ephraim, Benjamin, Zebulun, ...
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100 views

Understanding the textual apparatus in Hebrews 13:9

How can the first and second variants both be suported by K and L? ⸀ περιφερεσθε K L | ⸁ περιπατησαντες ℵ2 C D2 K L P Ψ 0243. 33. 81. 104. 365. 630. 1175. 1241. 1505. 1739. 1881 ¦ txt 46 ℵ✱ A D✱...
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Why is Elijah/Elias mentioned Luke 9:54 in the KJV but not in some other bible versions such as the NASB?

Luke 9:54 KJV: And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as Elias did? Luke 9:54 NASB: When His ...
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1answer
108 views

What is the 'me' in "masoretic text me" in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16?

What is the 'me' in "masoretic text me" in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16? https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm+22%3A16&version=NIV
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104 views

What is the earliest dating we can put on the orderings of the books of the Old Testament?

What is the earliest dating we can put on the ordering of the books of the Old Testament? I understand that there are two orderings or at least, broadly, two orderings. One being the Tanach/Tanak/...
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115 views

What are the lameds in the scribal annotations in the Aleppo Codex?

In this comment on History SE, I recalled reading the Biblical book of 1 Kings in the Aleppo Codex (10th century AD). Where Elijah is taunting rival prophets with the suggestion that their god Ba'...
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3answers
467 views

Why is there extra text in the KJV of 1 John 5:7?

John 5:7 (KJV) "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one." 1 John 5:7 (NIV) For there are three that testify: ...
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1answer
928 views

Why is Acts 8:37 omitted in some Bibles?

And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. -- Acts 8:37 (KJV) Why don't some versions of Bible ...
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2answers
835 views

Did the author intend to write Asa or Asaph in Matthew 1:7-8?

Both the King James and the NIV (following the received text and the Chronicler) name Asa as the father of Jehoshaphat in Matthew 1:8. The ESV, however, follows the older manuscripts and names him as ...

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