Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Approximately how many manuscripts of the Old Testament are extant today?

When looking into this, the closest I got to an answer is that the Masoretes were great copyists, but that they also had a way of disposing of older manuscripts, through the process of burial, and ...
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Saviour of all people, ESPECIALLY of those who believe

1 Timothy 4:10 reads: That is why we labor and strive, because we have put our hope in the living God, who is the Savior of all people, and especially of those who believe. My question is, is ...
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What does the Diatessaron have to say about the reading of Matthew 28:19?

As you probably know, George Howard's Hebrew Gospel of Matthew 28:19 only has the word "Go" and a Coptic manuscript also supports this reading. See Budge, E. A. Wallis. Coptic Texts, Volume V: ...
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Was Acts 15:34 in the original text?

The following is a list of English translations of Acts 15:34: King James Version (KJV) 34 Notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still. KJV, 1769 Young’s Literal Translation (YLT) 34 ...
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Acts 11:20 according to the Codex Sinaiticus

The following is the Greek text of Acts 11:20 according to the Codex Sinaiticus: The Textus Receptus (1550) states, ἦσαν δέ τινες ἐξ αὐτῶν ἄνδρες Κύπριοι καὶ Κυρηναῖοι οἵτινες εἰσελθόντες εἰς ...
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Matthew 19:9 - McFall, the "exception clause", and Erasmus

I am investigating the claim, made by Leslie McFall's Erasmus and Divorce in Matthew 19:9, that in fact Erasmus(1466-1536), a Catholic priest, in his construction of a Greek New Testament, altered the ...
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What factors bear on the authenticity of Χριστοῦ in 1 John 1:7?

The word “Christ” is absent in most modern translations of 1 John 1:7 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses ...
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What manuscript(s) does BHS get Joshua 21:36-37 from?

Note- This is not a duplicate of Is Joshua 21:36-37 authentic or an addition? because I am asking what the source of the hebrew of those two verses is, and for the BHS specifically. So for example,...
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Is "theos" of the Textus Receptus of 1 Timothy 3:16 the original reading?

The Greek text of 1 Tim. 3:16 according to the Textus Receptus of Robert Estienne reads: Notably, it begins with the word Θεὸς. The King James Version (1769) translates this into English as: And ...
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Acts 28:29 excluded from some editions

Acts 28:16-31 contains a wonderfully vivid description of Paul's arrival in Rome, his meeting with local Jewish leaders and his subsequent debate with them. The debate is preceded by a declaration of ...
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In Romans 2:12-14 is Paul saying there are two judgments?

Romans 2:12-14 (NKJV) 12 For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without law, and as many as have sinned in the law will be judged by the law 13 (for not the hearers of the law ...
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How can we reconcile Genesis 1:24-26 & Genesis 2:18-20?

Genesis 1:24-26(KJV) 24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. 25 And God ...
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How can we reconcile 2 Samuel 6:23 & 2 Samuel 21:7-9?

2 samuel 6:23 (KJV) 23 Therefore Michal the daughter of Saul had no child unto the day of her death. 2 samuel 21:7-9 (KJV) 7 But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan the son of ...
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What is the manuscript evidence for the reading "apart from God" in Hebrews 2:9?

What is the manuscript evidence for the variant reading "apart from God" in Hebrews 2:9?
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What is the proper translation of Revelation 6:16-17? [duplicate]

Berean Study Bible 16 And they said to the mountains and the rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of the One seated on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb. 17 For the great day ...
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Understanding the textual apparatus in Hebrews 13:9

How can the first and second variants both be suported by K and L? ⸀ περιφερεσθε K L | ⸁ περιπατησαντες ℵ2 C D2 K L P Ψ 0243. 33. 81. 104. 365. 630. 1175. 1241. 1505. 1739. 1881 ¦ txt 46 ℵ✱ A D✱...
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Are the Isaiah Scrolls from Cave 4 substantially different from the Masoretic text?

I recently heard 1QIsaa* touted, as it frequently has been, as a monument to the ancient nature of the Masoretic text. A response was made pointing out that we need to remember that there is more ...
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What text(s) do modern scholars use to translate the New Testament? [closed]

It is common for most Pastors like myself to us the 'original Greek' when studying in preparation for teachings and sermons. I am curious, though, as to how we came to understand what the original ...
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Why does the KJV add "desire" to Mark 11:24?

Mark 11:24 ESV: Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. Mark 11:24 KJV: Therefore I say unto you, What things soever ye desire, when ...
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Omission of "take up the Cross" Mark 10:21

Why do many modern Bibles omit the words "take up the cross" in Mark 10:21?
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What manuscripts did people use to create the NIV and KJV? Are the manuscripts used to fashion the NIV older than the KJV?

What manuscripts did people use to create the NIV and KJV? Are the manuscripts used to fashion the NIV older than the KJV? Are they the same manuscripts? To elaborate more on my question; I basically ...
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"In A Beginning" vs. "In THE beginning"? Different implications?

Possibly the most famous phrase in the Hebrew Bible is: "In the beginning." Anyone can recite it without ever having read the Hebrew Bible. But is that the accurate translation? With a background in ...
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In Matthew 1:1, what is the function of Βίβλος?

In Matthew 1:1, what is the function of Βίβλος? Westcott and Hort / [NA27 variants] ΒΙΒΛΟΣ γενέσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ υἱοῦ Δαυεὶδ / Δαυὶδ υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ. The NIV omits it: New International Version ...
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What is the evidence that Daniel was composed entirely in Aramaic?

Another question asked why a section running from Ch. 2 - Ch. 7 of Daniel is written in Aramaic rather than in Hebrew like the rest of the book. One of the answers pointed out that some have theorized ...
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Genesis Flood Compared/Contrasted with Atrahasis & Gilgamesh? [duplicate]

Being the theologians that you are, I'm sure many of you are very well aware of the extra-biblical accounts pertaining to the Great Deluge. It's quite fascinating to read these other ancient sources ...
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Who receives shame in 1 Corinthians 11:4?

1 Corinthians 11:3 Khabouris Codex ܨܒܐ ܐܢܐ ܕܝܢ ܕܬܕܥܘܢ ܕܟܠ ܓܒܪ ܪܫܗ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܗܘ ܘܪܫܗ ܕܐܢܬܬܐ ܓܒܪܐ ܗܘ ܘܪܫܗ ܕܡܫܝܚܐ ܐܠܗܐ ܗܘ Build 1 (What I find from real life) But I will understand of ...
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Should Genesis 8:10 read “he waited” or “he waited anxiously”?

In Genesis 8:10 the first word in the MT is ויחל. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) suggests emending to וייחל. Everyone seems to accept the BHS and translate this as "waited" just as if the ...
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Acts 13:19-20: Accuracy of Greek Text and Reference of "the four-hundred and fifty" in Codex Sinaiticus

The Received Text on Acts 13:19-20 differs from such MSS as the Codex Sinaiticus (א), Alexandrinus (A), and the Codex Vaticanus (B). Questions: Is it possible that the Received Text is accurate? ...
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Who stood before who in Genesis 18:22?

The NIV of Genesis 18:22 reads: The men turned away and went toward Sodom, but Abraham remained standing before the Lord. However, the NIV also adds a footnote: Masoretic Text; an ancient ...
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Where was Jesus when he said "He who believes in me believes not in me..."

In John 12 Jesus is talking with a crowd and then he disappears. Then the narrator provides an explanation for why "the Jews" could not believe in Jesus. However after it ends, Jesus is ...
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Is Joshua 21:36-37 authentic or an addition?

These two verses are not found in the NJPS: and out of the tribe of Reuben, Bezer with its pasturelands, Jahaz with its pasturelands, Kedemoth with its pasturelands, and Mephaath with its ...
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Are the three distinctive Hebrew terms, translated "breath of life," suggesting there was a different mankind at creation than there was at the flood?

The same English phrase, "breath of life," is used to describe three distinct Hebrew phrases. "Neshamah chay" is in Genesis 2:7 (creation). "Ruwach chay" is in Genesis 6:17 (intention for death at ...
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Did the New Testament Writers Rely on the Hebrew Text?

Related: - Historical Evidence that the Jewish Calendar Day Began at Sunset? 1. Question - a Reference Request Are there any textual evidences, (in the New Testament, and contemporary writers) - if ...
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Why is "christou" translated "God" in KJV Romans 10:17?

I was actually looking up the verse for another question I might ask about rhema (actually rēmatos) "hearing, and hearing by..." but I noticed that though I had memory of it saying "the word of God", ...
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Interpreting "psyche" as "soul"

In the New Testament the Greek term "psyche" often, if not always, gets translated as "soul." Would the original author using that term have meant "psyche" like we mean it today? Or, more precisely, ...
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Not keep silent or to make silent in Job 41:12?

Job 41:4 (MT; v. 12 in English versions): NRSV: I will not keep silence concerning its limbs ... ESV: I will not keep silence concerning his limbs ... NASB: I will not keep silence concerning ...
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Do any scholars argue a textual theory where the NT text was edited to make the autographa? [closed]

One Textual Creation/Transmission Theory Michael A. Grisanti in "Inspiration, Inerrancy, and the OT Canon: The Place of Textual Updating in an Inerrant View of Scripture," Journal of the Evangelical ...
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Might "son of Barachiah" be a scribal addition in Matthew 23:35?

The apparently confused identification of "Zechariah the son of Barachiah" in Matthew 23:35 is well known.* Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and ...
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What factors bear on the authenticity of Matthew 23:14?

Modern translations of the New Testament omit some verses found in the King James Bible (missing verses). The reason for the differences is that modern translations use the Nestle-Aland edition of the ...
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Hope or no hope in Job 13:15?

Job 13:15a NRSV: See, he will kill me; I have no hope ... ESV: Though he slay me, I will hope in him ... BHS: הֵן יִקְטְלֵנִי לֹא [לוֹ] אֲיַחֵל The difference rests on whether to prefer the ...
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In Matthew 5:28, which variant, αὐτὴν or αὐτῆς, is the object of τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι?

The Textus Receptus (1550, Estienne) has the pronoun αὐτῆς as the object of the infinitive τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι, while the NA28 has αὐτὴν. Grammatically, which is the preferred reading? Which manuscripts ...
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"Blessed be the glory of the LORD from its place"

Ezekiel 3:12-13a (BHS | ESV): וַתִּשָּׂאֵ֣נִי ר֔וּחַ וָאֶשְׁמַ֣ע אַחֲרַ֔י ק֖וֹל רַ֣עַשׁ גָּד֑וֹל בָּר֥וּךְ כְּבוֹד־יְהוָ֖ה מִמְּקוֹמֽוֹ׃ וְק֣וֹל ׀ כַּנְפֵ֣י הַחַיּ֗וֹת מַשִּׁיקוֹת֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה אֶל־...
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Whose faith is the subject of Hebrews 11:11?

Πίστει καὶ αὐτὴ Σάρρα δύναμιν εἰς καταβολὴν σπέρματος ἔλαβεν καὶ παρὰ καιρὸν ἡλικίας, ἐπεὶ πιστὸν ἡγήσατο τὸν ἐπαγγειλάμενον (Hebrews 11:11, Westcott and Hort) The traditional translation of Hebrews ...
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Is it corruption of the LXX for adding Deut 32:43 or of the Masoretic for lacking it as quoted in Hebrews 1:6?

What passage is the author of "To the Hebrews" quoting in Hebrews 1:6?: Heb 1:6 And again, when he reintroduces the firstbegotten into the populated lands, he says, "And let all the angels of God ...
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Isaiah 3:12: ‘...women rule over them.'

Isaiah 3:12a: My people — infants are their oppressors,      and women rule over them. (ESV) עַמִּי נֹגְשָׂיו מְעוֹלֵל וְנָשִׁים מָשְׁלוּ בוֹ (WLC) ...
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How many days until Nineveh will be overthrown?

When Jonah declares the destruction of Nineveh to its inhabitants, his only words are (3:4b): עוֹד אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְנִֽינְוֵ֖ה נֶהְפָּֽכֶת׃ (BHS) Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be ...
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“His love never ceases” vs. “we are not consumed” in Lamentations 3:22

Lamentations 3:22a חַֽסְדֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ כִּ֣י לֹא־תָ֔מְנוּ The steadfast love of the LORD never ceases... (ESV) ESV footnote: Syriac, Targum; Hebrew Because of the steadfast love of the LORD, ...
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Who are "the sons of disobedience" in Colossians 3:6?

If this variant represents the original text, then who are "the sons of disobedience" (τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας, tous huious tēs apeitheias) in Colossians 3:6? NA28: δι᾿ ἃ ἔρχεται ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ ...
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When was the Hebrew Bible's exact text/spelling synchronized globally?

The Hebrew Bible is essentially identical in all Jewish communities, despite significant differences in spellings and wordings from the Septuagint or texts in the Dead Sea Scrolls, or even from quoted ...
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Are there any major contestants to the transmissional accuracy of the NT? [closed]

I've been doing some research on how reliable the reconstructed Greek NTs are (I would suppose the Nestle-Aland and UBS). One paper I see cited more than any other is Clay Jones' paper to the ...

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