Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem?

How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem? Answer1 2 Kings 8:26 (KJV): Two and twenty years old Answer2 2 Chronicles 22:2 (KJV): Forty and two years old
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(Romans 8:26) "What" to pray And/Or "How" to pray of a specific prayer

I do Not have any comprehension and/or fluency in the Greek language(s). However, I wanted to get a better understanding of Romans 8:26 which is related to prayer. I might just be nit-picking. As I ...
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Variant Readings of Titus 2:13

Are there any variant readings of Titus 2:13, possessing at least one of the following three characteristics ? the omission of the name Jesus Christ at the end of the verse a definite article placed ...
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(1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18)Alexandrian manuscripts relatively practical, level-headed while Byzantine manuscripts are rhetorical hyperbole-like

As I was reading 1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18 in different bible translations belonging to either the Byzantine family or the Alexandrian family of manuscripts. I noticed that the Alexandrian ...
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Why DRB translated "prudens", and "prudentes" as "wise" in some verses, While was forced to translate them as "prudent" in some other verses?

I consider- through my research- Latin Vulgate as the most reliable and authentic text of the Bible. DRB (Douay-Rheims Bible), I consider, the most loyal, literal English translation of the Latin ...
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Why does the 1 Samuel 10:27 paragraph found in 4QSamª not appear in other texts?

I was reading 1 Samuel 10 in the New Living Translation and found that in the verse 27, there is the following paragraph: [Nahash, king of the Ammonites, had been grievously oppressing the people ...
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Why John 1:1 in (DRB)(Douay-Rheims Bible) is not literal translation from the Latin Vulgate?

John 1:1 in DRB (Douay-Rheims) is: "... and the Word was God." This is not literal translation from the Latin Vulgate. John 1:1 LV: "...et Deus erat Verbum." I think the literal English ...
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What are the main Textual Differences between KJV and DRB?

First of all, the answer is possible, but needs some effort. I am not overhasty, take your time. I think the honest answer will direct us toward the most accurate translation to the most accurate ...
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What is the correct translation of Jeremiah 6:2?

Jeremiah 6:2 New American Standard Bible (NASB) 2“The comely and dainty one, the daughter of Zion, I will cut off. Jeremiah 6:2 King James Version (KJV) 2 I have likened the daughter of Zion to ...
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What is the most accurate (original Greek text), and (translation) of Jude 1:4?

KJV of Jude 1:4 declares that God is the only lord, beside the lord Jesus Christ, i.e: it may means that the only Lord is God the father, beside the lord Jesus Christ. Like KJV, also, World English ...
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Why is the word "Christ" missing in Matthew 23:8 in some translations?

Matthew 23:8 NASB 8 >But do not be called Rabbi; for One is your Teacher, and you are all brothers. Matthew 23:8 KJV 8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye ...
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Why is 1 Kings 22:47-50 missing in the LXX?

1 Kings 22:47-50 which describes the death of Jehoshaphat is missing in the LXX. What could be the reason for having left out these verses? 1 Kings 22:47 ~ There was then no king in Edom; a ...
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Is it adulterers and adulteresses in James 4:4?

James 4:4 NASB 4 You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with the world is hostility toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. James ...
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What role should hermeneutics be given in determining the "original" text?

The cataloging of a textual variations requires a decision on the primary text and variations are placed in the apparatus. Initially, the primary reading was taken from the majority of manuscripts. ...
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Why is John 5:4 missing in the NIV?

John 5:3-5 NIV 3 Here a great number of disabled people used to lie—the blind, the lame, the paralyzed. [4] [b] 5 One who was there had been an invalid for thirty-eight years. John 5:3-5 KJV 3 ...
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Why KJV translated "Χριστοῦ" as "God" in Ephesians 5:21?

Ephesians 5:21 (DRB): Being subject one to another, in the fear of Christ. Ephesians 5:21 (KJB): Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God. KJV and NKJV, both versions translated ...
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Did Jude 25 mention "σοφῷ" or not?

I was shocked when I read Jude 25 in one Greek text and some of English, Arabic and Latin translations, e.g: سميث/ڤانديك. الحياة. الأخبار السارة. اليسوعية. KJV. ESV. ASV. Vulgate. GNT. I found the ...
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Is Jesus flesh the veil in Heb 10:19?

Heb 10:19,20 which says in the NIV: Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the Most Holy Place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way opened for us through the curtain, that ...
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In which language was the name "Jesus" written and how was it pronounced in Matthew 1:1 first?

In which language was the name "Jesus" written and how was it pronounced in Matthew 1:1 first? This question is asked to find out if the claims of Nehemiah Gordon in his book The Naming of Jesus in ...
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Where, if anywhere is Psalms 22:16 in Qumran Dead Sea Scroll 4Q88/4QPs?

Regarding Psalm 22:16 By Psalm 22:16, I mean "Dogs surround me, a pack of villains encircles me; they pierce my hands and my feet." (v17 in the jewish verse numbering) Is Psalms 22:16 missing ...
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What is the 'me' in "masoretic text me" in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16?

What is the 'me' in "masoretic text me" in the NIV note on Psalms 22:16? https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm+22%3A16&version=NIV
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What happened to Psalm 14 verses 5–7?

In the classic Book of Common Prayer (Coverdale) psalter, there are these verses 5–7 of Psalm 14 (13 in the LXX/Vulgate numbering): Their throat is an open sepulchre, with their tongues have they ...
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Versions of Daniel not Mentioning Darius in the Sixth or Ninth Chapter

There are three main versions of the Book of Daniel : Masoretic, Old Greek, and Theodotion. However, they all read Darius (but allude to Cyrus) in both their sixth and ninth chapters. Are there any ...
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What is the argument for editing the term πορνείᾳ from scripture in Romans 1:29?

In the Byzantine text πορνείᾳ is present, and other later manuscripts do not show it . The King James translators of Rom 1:29 include the term, defined as "fornication". Most other modern ...
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Is the word "begotten" in John 3:16 of Authorized Version a problem that creates confusion when establishing the Deity of Christ?

The Authorized Version has the word "begotten" in John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have ...
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Why is it that in John 3:3 the ESV translates "be born from above" to "is born again"?

I was told that ESV uses the oldest Greek manuscripts to translate the scripture literally from Greek into English. So why is it that in John 3:3 the ESV translates "be born from above" to "is born ...
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Matthew 5:22: Is "without cause" in the original text?

The KJV renders Mt 5:22 (emphasis added) But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment The Greek (emphasis added) used by this ...
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What is the correct English translation from Greek and meaning of Hebrews 1:6?

What is the correct English translation from Greek and meaning of Hebrews 1:6 ? A few translations are: ( AKJV ) And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And ...
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What does "revocalization" mean in Bible footnotes?

For instance, the ESV adds a note to Proverbs 30:1 in regards to "I am weary, O God, and worn out.": Revocalization; Hebrew The man declares to Ithiel, to Ithiel and Ucal" What is "revocalization" ...
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What does Isaiah mean by saying that the LORD's "hand is stretched out still"? (Is. 5:25;9:12,17,21;10:4)

I heard explained that it means that the LORD will still extend mercy in spite of sins. I have also heard that it means just the opposite-that an extended hand in ancient Near Eastern context means a ...
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In Hebrews 1:3 is "by himself" original?

I came across an interesting NT textual criticism site that argues that the words "by himself" are original, despite being omitted in modern English Bibles: Heb. 1:3 In Hebrews 1:3, most modern ...
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Do any manuscripts of Revelation 1:18 read Ο ΩΝ instead of Ο ΖΩΝ?

To my mind, the ο ων of Exodus 3 would fit better here than ο ζων, even more naturally, with the words "I am the First and the Last," ο ων of course being the translation of the Tetragrammaton in the ...
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Verse Division in 1 Peter 3:15-16 / μετά πραΰτητος καί φόβου in

In 1 Peter 3, the Greek phrase μετά πραΰτητος καί φόβου appears in verse 15 in the Textus Receptus (https://www.blueletterbible.org/nasb/1pe/3/15/t_conc_1154015), but in verse 16 in the GNT (https://...
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Why did NA27 include 2 Corinthians 13:14?

NA27 2 Cor 1314 Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ κοινωνία τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν. Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort, The New Testament in the ...
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Is "Ish-bosheth" a modified form of "Eshbaal?"

A professor of mine made an interesting claim in class today with regard to 2 Samuel 2:8: But Abner the son of Ner, commander of Saul's army, had taken Ish-bosheth the son of Saul and brought him ...
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2 Samuel 1:26 -- How does the Vulgate have a sentence not present in the Masoretic text or Septuagint?

I was scrolling through English translations of David's eulogy for Saul and Jonathan and noticed the Douay-Rheims Bible/the Vulgate has an entirely new sentence/thought in verse 26. The Masoretic ...
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Why is the word "honeycomb", in Luke 24:42, missing from most Bible translations?

King James, together with a few other translations, has "fish and honeycomb" in Luke 24:42, while most other translations only mention "fish". Why is "honeycomb" missing? ...
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Could Jesus actually have risen from the dead on the fourth day, instead on the third day?

I was reading Luke 24:7 just now. The verse is about an angel who tells the disciples that Jesus was going to rise the third day. I noticed that it didn’t say on the third day, or after the third day. ...
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Should we take up our cross daily or not?

In Luke 9:23 in the HCSB Jesus is quoted saying "If anyone wants to come with Me, he must deny himself, take up his cross daily and follow Me." In the parallel passages in Mark 8, and ...
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God's decision regarding The Great Flood

Am curious as to how and why God went all "I'm going to get rid of ALL creation." in Genesis 6:7 to "Noah take animals with you aboard the Ark." in Genesis 6:19-20 concerning the beasts of the earth. ...
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Why are there only four kings of Persia in Daniel 11:2? [closed]

Daniel 11:2, Now then, I tell you the truth: Three more kings will arise in Persia, and then a fourth, who will be far richer than all the others. When he has gained power by his wealth, he ...
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What is the earliest dating we can put on the orderings of the books of the Old Testament?

What is the earliest dating we can put on the ordering of the books of the Old Testament? I understand that there are two orderings or at least, broadly, two orderings. One being the Tanach/Tanak/...
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Are nomina sacra thought to have been used in the autographs?

Nomina sacra are abbreviations used for the sacred names of God, Jesus, the Spirit, etc. (though also common unsacred words such as ανθρωπος) in many Greek manuscripts. Do any approaches to textual ...
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What is the difference between "the law" in John 1:17 & "the law" in Galatians 4:21

John 1:17 For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. Here the scripture says law was given through Moses. And again from Galatians 4:21-22 Tell me, you who ...
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What are the lameds in the scribal annotations in the Aleppo Codex?

In this comment on History SE, I recalled reading the Biblical book of 1 Kings in the Aleppo Codex (10th century AD). Where Elijah is taunting rival prophets with the suggestion that their god Ba'...
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Does 1 Peter 3:21 teach baptismal regeneration?

20Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. 21The like ...
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What is the textual evidence for 'of the sins' in Colossians 2:11?

Please Note : This is a question about the TR, not about the Westcott and Hort text or the Nestle Aland text. Stephens, Beza, Elzevir and Scrivener all include των αμαρτιων 'of the sins' in the text ...
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Meaning of "pc" in the Nestle-Aland critical apparatus (Revelation 5.10)

In Which translation for Revelation 5:10 is correct?, this answer gives a helpful explanation of which readings appear in which manuscripts. I don't doubt the author's correctness! But I am struggling ...
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Which translation for Revelation 5:10 is correct?

Some translations of this scripture use the pronoun "us" but other ones use the pronoun "them". The use actually changes what is going on prior to this scripture in terms of who is ...
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Why is the KJV version of Matthew 5:44 so much longer than other Bibles?

From my search the KJV includes the phrase, "do good to them that hate you" But that phrase doesn't seem to exist in the versions I typically use. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=...

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