Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Analysis of Daniel 9:26

A question for those with ability with Hebrew .. Daniel 9:26 DANIEL 9:26 And after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself; And the people of the prince who is to come Shall ...
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Why is the doctrine of fasting omitted by the modern revisions of the Bible?

Jesus fasted 40 days in the wilderness (see Matthew 4:2), just as Moses had done and Elijah had done (see Exodus 24:18, 1 Kings 19:8). And Jesus taught the disciples to fast, such as before ...
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How does passing food through the body make all foods clean, as per Mark 7:19 in the modern versions?

The modern translations present a real conundrum with Mark 7:19. The traditional KJV has it as: Because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging ...
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Did Jesus misquote Psalm 8:2? [duplicate]

Matthew 21:16 And said unto him, Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus saith unto them, Yea; have ye never read, Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise? Psalm 8:2 Out of ...
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Does Tregelles' description of the Armenian edition imply that Greek manuscripts were routinely altered to match the Vulgate?

Does Tregelles' description of the Armenian edition imply that translations based on Greek manuscripts were routinely altered to match the Vulgate? The Armenian Version by Miesrob in the fourth ...
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Which manuscripts indicate the NIV footnote alternative of "Father keep them faithful to your name"?

John 17:11 I will remain in the world no longer, but they are still in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them by the power of[a] your name, the name you gave me, so that they may ...
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Origin of John 8:1-11

I am looking for a possible source and early references for John 8:1-11. There is evidence that this story was not part of the original Gospel of John as the oldest manuscripts do not contain it. In ...
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Why do most modern Greek text editions drop "that ye should not obey the truth" in Gal 3:1?

When I saw the Greek for Gal 3:1 I was surprised to find how modern literal translations of ESV, NRSV, NASB seem to drop the clause τῇ ἀληθείᾳ μὴ πείθεσθαι (that ye should not obey the truth). For ...
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Were the last 12 verses of the Gospel of Mark in fact taken from Luke?

Were the last 12 verses of the Gospel of Mark in fact taken from Luke? Here it states that in the Gospel of Mark there is an added portion (Mark 16:9-20) In this reference I didn't find the following ...
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Meaning of "For when a face is sad a heart may be happy"

In Ecclesiastes 7:3 (NASB) Sorrow is better than laughter, For when a face is sad a heart may be happy. What is the meaning of "For when a face is sad a heart may be happy"?
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Remains of Aramaic/Hebrew version of Matthew

We know from several early Christian theologists that the Gospel of Matthew existed in a Hebrew or Aramaic version before parts of NT that were written in Greek were translated into Syriac in the ...
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Augustine and John 17:3

Augustine in his commentary on John 17:3 said “ The proper order of the words is, That they may know You and Jesus Christ, whom You have sent, as the only true God.” https://www.newadvent.org/fathers/...
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Evidence for/against Romans chapter 16 being a later addition to the text?

There are those who suggest that chapter 16 is a later addition to an originally shorter epistle to the Romans. It strikes me that arguments against the originality of Romans 16 based upon what we do/...
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In Samuel 19, is it Naioth or hut of prophets?

In 1 Samuel 19:18 (NASB) So David fled and escaped, and came to Samuel at Ramah; and he informed him of everything that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and stayed in Naioth According to ...
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What textual evidence is there for the Orthodox Jewish Bible translation of John 8:25?

John 8:25, Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB) They were saying, therefore, to him, Who are you? Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach said to them, Why should I even speak to you at all? Compare this to (say) the ...
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In 1 Samuel 12, Barak or Bedan?

In 1 Samuel 12:11 NLT Then the LORD sent Gideon, Bedan, Jephthah, and Samuel to save you, and you lived in safety. NIV Then the LORD sent Jerub-Baal, Barak, Jephthah and Samuel, and he delivered ...
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When did the different meaning of Mark 1:2 first appear? "Isaiah" vs. "prophets"

As I understand it there is a difference in meaning in the Greek texts of Mark 1:2. Which leads to a difference in the NASB translation when compared to the KJV translation. With the NASB translation ...
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John 8:46, "prove me guilty of", or "convicts", or "reproach"?

John 8:46, NIV; Can any of you prove me guilty of sin? If I am telling the truth, why don't you believe me? John 8:46, NKJV; Which of you convicts Me of sin? And if I tell the truth, why do you not ...
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Was Jesus made to be SIN or a SIN OFFERING? [duplicate]

the righteousness of God in him. 2nd Corinthians 5:21 (KJV) I have not found a sufficient examination on this site for the true interpretation of this verse. I read my Russian bible primarily and it ...
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Additional 1 Samuel in the dead sea scrolls

I read 1 Samuel 11 on Bible Gateway. At the end of the chapter was a footnote. 1 Samuel 11:1 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls gifts Now Nahash king of the Ammonites oppressed the Gadites and ...
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What is the correct translation of Matthew 5:13 "How shall it be salted?"

The ESV translation of Matthew 5:13 says “You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt should lose its taste, how can it be made salty?[a] It’s no longer good for anything but to be thrown out and ...
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What is the Source of translations discrepancy in Gen. 8:4

It looks like that in the Original Hebrew Gen 8:4, and in KJV for example, the date given is the seventeenth of the seventh month וַתָּנַח הַתֵּבָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי, בְּשִׁבְעָה-עָשָׂר יוֹם ...
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Psalm 14 or Psalm 53 - Which came first?

Psalm 14 and 53 are nearly identical. Thrice Psalm 14 uses "LORD" (the Tetragrammaton) where 53 uses "God". 53 adds "according to the machalath style; a well-written song"...
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Should it read גִלְעָד or גַלְעֵד?

Genesis 31:47-48 reads as follows: וַיִּקְרָא-לוֹ לָבָן, יְגַר שָׂהֲדוּתָא; וְיַעֲקֹב, קָרָא לוֹ גַּלְעֵד. מח וַיֹּאמֶר לָבָן, הַגַּל הַזֶּה עֵד בֵּינִי וּבֵינְךָ הַיּוֹם; עַל-כֵּן קָרָא-שְׁמוֹ, ...
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Why do English bibles remove the word “Jesus” from “Jesus the Christ” in Matthew 16:20?

We find textual variants in English bibles (NASB, ESV, NRSV, NIV) when compared to the KJV which states in Matthew 16:20 : [20] Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was [...
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Why isn't 2 Corinthians 13:14 in the NRSV?

I was researching references to the trinity in scripture, and although I am aware that the reference in 1 John 5:7 is likely spurious, can't seem to find the verse in the NRSV. There is no note as to ...
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Acts 5:31 - Does any reputable manuscript suggest that Jesus is God's Chief Agent

While doing research to answer a question on Christ Jesus being our Saviour, I noticed something strange in the New World Translation while reading Acts 5:31. The King James Version, New International ...
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What is the origin of the additional words to John 3:13?

There is a Q regarding the meaning of this verse. This Q is regarding the authenticity of the 'addition' - and what was intended by it. What is meant in John 3:13 by *the son of man who's in ...
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What are the evidences for the Q source theory? [closed]

What exactly are the evidences for the "Q source theory"? When I say the "Q source theory" I basically mean any of the modern theories that deviate from view that the Gospels were ...
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Purchased - from whom? (Acts 28:20)

I have an exegetical query regarding Acts 20:28 Acts 20:28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, ...
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How might Amos 4:13 LXX come to speak of Christ?

The Hebrew of Amos 4:13 does not mention Christ: [Amo 4:13 NLT] (13) For the LORD is the one who shaped the mountains, stirs up the winds, and reveals his thoughts to mankind. He turns the light of ...
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Comparison of Vaticanus and Siniaticus in an interlineary

This is my problem: I would like to be able to compare the two most referred-to texts (which most modern versions are based on); but I cannot find a way to do it. I do not read Greek - though I am ...
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Regarding Asaph (אָ֫סָ֥ף ), why do digital versions of KJV Bible remove his name from Psalms 73-83?

Regarding Asaph (אָ֫סָ֥ף), why do certain online KJV texts remove his name from Psalms 73-83, such as Bible Gateway's? If we only read the KJV, the Tehillim (Psalms) may appear to be written by King ...
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Does DSS version of Psalm 119:65 reveal Masoretes abbreviated original text?

Besides revealing the ancient Hebrew Name of YHVH from 30 AD, does the DSS version of [Psalm 119:65] prove the original Hebrew suffix “Your” (Kha) was originally written with a combined ‘Kaf-Hei’ ...
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Why is Elijah/Elias mentioned Luke 9:54 in the KJV but not in some other bible versions such as the NASB?

Luke 9:54 KJV: And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as Elias did? Luke 9:54 NASB: When His ...
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Did Jesus say "For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever" in Matthew 6:13?

In Matthew's version of the Lord's prayer, we have Matthew 6:13 For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. But it is not in Luke's or in some Greek manuscripts. This phrase ...
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Why is the phrase 'not being myself under the law' missing in 1 Corinthians 9:20 in the KJV?

1 Corinthians 9:20 KJV 20 And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain them that are under the law; 1 ...
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What's this variant in the Codex Sinaiticus of John 1:18?

Everyone knows about the textual variant specific to the Alexandrian texts that say "only-begotten God" as opposed to the Byzantine, Caesarean and Western families all saying "only-...
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2 Kings 13:21 - וַיֵּלֶךְ - who went?

2 kings 13:21 וַיְהִי הֵם קֹבְרִים אִישׁ, וְהִנֵּה רָאוּ אֶת-הַגְּדוּד, וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אֶת-הָאִישׁ, בְּקֶבֶר אֱלִישָׁע; וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּגַּע הָאִישׁ, בְּעַצְמוֹת אֱלִישָׁע, וַיְחִי, וַיָּקָם עַל-...
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What are the literary device(s) used in Psalm 44 to express God's Victories as He battles?

I might just be asking something that's quite obvious, but I just wanted more insight and clarity. When the Israelites battled against their foes at Beth-horon, God did drop large stones/hailstones on ...
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Textual varient in Ex. 20:3

Exodus 20:3 לֹא-יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים, עַל-פָּנָי יִהְיֶֽה verb qal imperfect 3rd person masculine singular Ed:BHS has been faithful to L (the Leningrad Codex) where there might be a ...
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Romans 13:9, what is the accurate text? With or without "false testimony"?

Romans 13:9, (DRB): For Thou shalt not commit adultery: Thou shalt not kill: Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness: Thou shalt not covet: and if there be any other commandment, it ...
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1 Peter 3:21 in Papyrus 72 and Codex Sinaiticus

1 Peter 3:21 I recently noticed that in both Papyrus 72 and Codex Sinaiticus a semicolon appears before baptism. Wouldn’t this move baptism out of the first part of the verse and change the verse ...
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1 Peter 3:22, what are the accurate translations of this verse?

1 Peter 3:22 (DRB): Who is on the right hand of God, swallowing down death, that we might be made heirs of life everlasting: being gone into heaven, the angels and powers and virtues being made ...
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1 John 5:7,8 (ESV, NIV) why is "Earth" not found? [duplicate]

1 John 5:7,8 (ESV, NIV): For there are three that testify: the Spirit and the water and the blood; and these three agree. For there are three that testify: the Spirit, the water and ...
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224 views

Genesis 27:39, which translations are most accurate? The affirmation translations or the negation ones?

Negation translations like: NIV, NLT, GNT, NWT, ESV, BSB, NASB, CEV. Affirmation translations like: KJV, NKJV, NHEB, ASV, DRB. Example of negation translations of Genesis 27:39, GNT: Then Isaac ...
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How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem?

How old was Ahaziah when he began to rule over Jerusalem? Answer1 2 Kings 8:26 (KJV): Two and twenty years old Answer2 2 Chronicles 22:2 (KJV): Forty and two years old
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(Romans 8:26) "What" to pray And/Or "How" to pray of a specific prayer

I do Not have any comprehension and/or fluency in the Greek language(s). However, I wanted to get a better understanding of Romans 8:26 which is related to prayer. I might just be nit-picking. As I ...
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Variant Readings of Titus 2:13

Are there any variant readings of Titus 2:13, possessing at least one of the following three characteristics ? the omission of the name Jesus Christ at the end of the verse a definite article placed ...
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118 views

(1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18)Alexandrian manuscripts relatively practical, level-headed while Byzantine manuscripts are rhetorical hyperbole-like

As I was reading 1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18 in different bible translations belonging to either the Byzantine family or the Alexandrian family of manuscripts. I noticed that the Alexandrian ...

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