Questions tagged [textual-criticism]

The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
16
votes
2answers
1k views

How should Psalm 22:16 read?

Psalm 22:16 seems textually quite difficult. The NET for example reads: Yes, wild dogs surround me – a gang of evil men crowd around me; like a lion they pin my hands and feet. Yet, they note that ...
14
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the argument against the authenticity of 1 John 5:7-8 in the KJV?

I was reading through Lee Strobel's The Case for the Real Jesus and came across a passage in the book that indicates the inauthenticity of 1 John 5:7-8 in the King James Version: 1 John 5:7-8 (KJV) ...
24
votes
5answers
57k views

Was the text of Matthew 28:19 changed?

Scholars such as F. C. Conybeare1 have claimed that the Trinitarian baptismal formula of Matthew 28:19 was not original to the text of Matthew. Matt 28:19 (NIV) 19 Therefore go and make disciples ...
36
votes
8answers
12k views

Why is the Septuagint (LXX) significant?

What is the LXX and why is it so noteworthy that there is a Greek translation of the OT? Wouldn't it be better to directly reference manuscripts in the original languages?
16
votes
12answers
7k views

Understanding Jesus' apparent lie in John 7:8

John 7:8: "...You go to the festival. I am not[a] going up to this festival, because my time has not yet fully come." The all important footnote: [a] John 7:8 Some manuscripts not yet It seems ...
19
votes
3answers
8k views

Is the ending of the Gospel of Mark (16:9-20) original?

Some scholars believe that the ending of Mark is unoriginal due to it appearing to have a different style and the fact that it's missing from some key manuscripts. At the same time, several early ...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

Coherence-Based Genealogical Method vs. Local Text-Types Theory

The NA28 text marks a departure from the traditional methodology of textual criticism. As described by Jeff Kloha in the Concordia Theology Journal, Previous generations learned to classify ...
23
votes
7answers
7k views

Is John 7:53-8:11 original to John's gospel?

I've read several recent commentaries on John 8 and all agree that the story of the woman caught in adultery almost certainly wasn't there in the original manuscript. Is it original?
11
votes
1answer
23k views

What is the original text of Deuteronomy 32:8-9?

4QDeutj "When Elyon gave the nations as an inheritance, when he separated the sons of man, he set the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the sons of God (bny 'l[hym]). For ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

What are the translations of the Greek word μονογενής in Ancient Versions?Is it "only" or "only-begotten"?

What are the translations of the Greek word μονογενής in Ancient Versions? What are the rendering of μονογενής into Ancient Versions of the *NT passages? Hebrew Arabic: Ethiopic: Syriac (Aramaic): ...
17
votes
5answers
7k views

Is there any reason to think that Mark 7:19 has a later addition?

This is Mark 7:19 from the NIV: For it doesn’t go into their heart but into their stomach, and then out of the body.” (In saying this, Jesus declared all foods clean.) Every time I see a ...
9
votes
3answers
5k views

Is 1 Corinthians 14:33-35 an interpolation?

One of the answers to the question about what 1st Corinthians 14:34-35 means suggests that the passage is a later interpolation. From the quote by J.W. Wartick, included in the answer, there are ...
11
votes
5answers
4k views

What is the original Number of the Beast?

Seems trivial question, because 666 had been widely accepted as the original. However if you investigate further different early versions of the Book of Revelation, they gave different Numbers of the ...
11
votes
1answer
12k views

Why is 1 John 5:7-8, found in the KJV, kept in the NKJV when it is believed to be inauthentic?

1 John 5:7-8 King James Version (KJV) 7 For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. 8 And there are three that ...
9
votes
2answers
740 views

How can we understand differences between the NWT and Latin/Hebrew/Greek on Zechariah 12:10?

Is there any early manuscript that shows a word translatable as "the one" (3rd person) in Zechariah 12:10? When looking at Zechariah 12:10, this is how it reads in: New World Translation (NWT) I ...
11
votes
1answer
3k views

Are the three distinctive Hebrew terms, translated "breath of life," suggesting there was a different mankind at creation than there was at the flood?

The same English phrase, "breath of life," is used to describe three distinct Hebrew phrases. "Neshamah chay" is in Genesis 2:7 (creation). "Ruwach chay" is in Genesis 6:17 (intention for death at ...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

Who led the people of Israel out of Egypt in Jude 5?

Lest anyone think this is a "stump the chumps" question, I am specifically interested in support for a particular reading of this text. It is disputed which manuscript should be followed in Jude 5. ...
9
votes
3answers
900 views

Does the "lost leaf" theory for Mark's abrupt ending fail if written on a scroll?

I really like this explanation of Mark's rather abrupt ending: There are three possible explanations for Mark ending at 16:8: (1) The author intentionally ended the Gospel here in an open-ended ...
28
votes
10answers
19k views

Should John 1:18 read "the only begotten God"?

I was reading my New King James version of the Bible and found a footnote for this verse: John 1:18 (NKJV) No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son,[a] who is in the bosom of the ...
20
votes
3answers
4k views

Bart D. Ehrman - respected critic? [closed]

I found Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why troublesome to my understanding of the translation process of the bible. It has made me review my understanding of the bible. ...
13
votes
6answers
12k views

What is the meaning of "calculate" in Revelation 13:18?

This is perhaps the most famous prophesy in popular culture: This calls for wisdom: let the one who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man, and his ...
11
votes
3answers
3k views

Was nûn deleted from Psalm 145 in the Masoretic Text?

Psalm 145 is an acrostic of the Hebrew alphabet, except that in most of the MT manuscripts verse 13b is missing along with therefore the letter nûn. The ESV renders it like this: Your kingdom is an ...
19
votes
2answers
820 views

How does a Bible translator know if it is a poem?

Let's take 1 Tim 3:16 as an example among many others, where Paul wrote or quoted (ESV): Great indeed, we confess, is the mystery of godliness: He was manifested in the flesh, vindicated by the ...
11
votes
2answers
571 views

What manuscript(s) does BHS get Joshua 21:36-37 from?

Note- This is not a duplicate of Is Joshua 21:36-37 authentic or an addition? because I am asking what the source of the hebrew of those two verses is, and for the BHS specifically. So for example,...
10
votes
4answers
28k views

Was Barabbas' given name Jesus?

The ESV is typical in it's rendering of Barabbas' name: Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release for the crowd any one prisoner whom they wanted. And they had then a notorious ...
6
votes
2answers
777 views

Omission of "take up the Cross" Mark 10:21

Why do many modern Bibles omit the words "take up the cross" in Mark 10:21?
-4
votes
1answer
2k views

Is the use of ἀγάπη (agape) and ἀγαπάω (agapao) evidence the Gospel and Letters of John were written from Ephesus?

John reports Jesus gave a new command which would identify followers of Jesus Christ: A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love (ἀγαπᾶτε) one another; as I have loved (ἠγάπησα) you, that ye ...
15
votes
6answers
4k views

Did God say that Adam will die on the same day he ate the fruit?

but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” (Genesis 2:17, NKJV) but you must not eat from the tree of the ...
8
votes
2answers
376 views

What is the gender of the verb "to say" in Ecclesiastes 7:27?

In Ecclesiastes 7:27, there is a brief phrase, "says Qohelet" (ʾāmĕrâ qōhelet). In the rest of the book, it seems like masculine verbs are used with Qohelet, despite Qohelet itself having a feminine ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Earliest attestation to Luke's gospel

What is the earliest convincing attestation to the gospel of Luke? I believe that Justin Martyr quotes from Luke's gospel ca.150. Is that generally considered unassailable? Are there other earlier ...
6
votes
6answers
540 views

Why is John 5:4 missing in the NIV?

John 5:3-5 NIV 3 Here a great number of disabled people used to lie—the blind, the lame, the paralyzed. [4] [b] 5 One who was there had been an invalid for thirty-eight years. John 5:3-5 KJV 3 ...
6
votes
4answers
825 views

“Voice” or “string” in Psalm 19:4?

I’m trying to figure out what’s going on in Psalm 19:4/5a: Their voice goes out through all the earth ESV 19:4a :בְּכָל־הָאָ֨רֶץ ׀ יָ֘צָ֤א קַוָּ֗ם BHS 19:5a εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἐξῆλθεν ὁ φθόγγος ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

What are the arguments for and against Johannine Comma?

There have been many debates regarding the reliability of the Johannine Comma, a verse in 1 John which many textual critics do not think is authentic. Assuming the verse itself is authentic, what are ...
1
vote
2answers
330 views

Revelation 6:17 KJV For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

Can any one illustrate to me the manuscript evidence supporting "the great day of their wrath" as opposed to "His wrath”?
1
vote
1answer
131 views

(1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18)Alexandrian manuscripts relatively practical, level-headed while Byzantine manuscripts are rhetorical hyperbole-like

As I was reading 1 John 3:5-10 & 1 John 5:18 in different bible translations belonging to either the Byzantine family or the Alexandrian family of manuscripts. I noticed that the Alexandrian ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

In 1 Corinthians 10:9 why does Paul say that the Israelites "tested Christ"?

NIV 1 Corinthians 10: 1For I do not want you to be ignorant of the fact, brothers and sisters, that our ancestors were all under the cloud and that they all passed through the sea. 2They were all ...
20
votes
7answers
20k views

Omission of 'fasting' in Mark 9:29

I would like to know why some versions feel it apt to omit the word "fasting" from Mark 9:29. Is this because it was not concurrent with the correct translation/ meaning of this verse? For example. ...
3
votes
7answers
15k views

"In A Beginning" vs. "In THE beginning"? Different implications?

Possibly the most famous phrase in the Hebrew Bible is: "In the beginning." Anyone can recite it without ever having read the Hebrew Bible. But is that the accurate translation? With a background in ...
14
votes
5answers
3k views

How can we reconcile 2 Samuel 6:23 & 2 Samuel 21:7-9?

2 samuel 6:23 (KJV) 23 Therefore Michal the daughter of Saul had no child unto the day of her death. 2 samuel 21:7-9 (KJV) 7 But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan the son of ...
13
votes
1answer
710 views

Is " Ὁ ὢν" used as a title for Yahweh in LXX Jeremiah?

While looking into a question about the Greek phrase "ο ων" ("the one being") as a title for Yahweh in Koine Greek literature, I ran across this appellation in LXX Jeremiah. It occurs three times in ...
6
votes
2answers
15k views

What are higher and lower criticism?

What is historical criticism (also known as higher criticism)? What is textual criticism (also known as lower criticism)? How can they help us understand the scriptures? How can they interefere with ...
18
votes
2answers
7k views

What is the proper translation of Hosea 11:12?

I have been researching Hosea 11:12 and have come to realize that it is translated differently in many differing translations of the Bible. It is sometimes translated that Judah walked (or ruled) with ...
10
votes
1answer
938 views

Are the Isaiah Scrolls from Cave 4 substantially different from the Masoretic text?

I recently heard 1QIsaa* touted, as it frequently has been, as a monument to the ancient nature of the Masoretic text. A response was made pointing out that we need to remember that there is more ...
7
votes
1answer
595 views

What led to the division of Ezra-Nehemiah?

Modern consensus is that the books of Ezra and Nehemiah actually comprise a single work which was subsequently divided into two. How is it that scholars realized this was the same book (Does it have ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Contextually, which English translation/ Greek text seems more probable in Rev. 5:10?

In the King James Version of Rev. 5:10, we find the following phrase, And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth. If we examine the immediate context, the ...
5
votes
7answers
3k views

What does Cain say to Abel in Genesis 4:8?

The Masoretic version of Genesis 4:8 reads as follows: וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן, אֶל-הֶבֶל אָחִיו; וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה, וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל-הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ. And Cain said to his brother ...
4
votes
1answer
455 views

What is the BEST Textual Cristicism argument for keeping "us" in Revelation 5:9 and 10?

There seems to be a lot of information as to why Rev 5:9 should be read as "them" instead of us, but what are the strongest arguments from a textual manuscript criticism basis for keeping the TR "us?"
4
votes
1answer
213 views

Should Genesis 8:10 read “he waited” or “he waited anxiously”?

In Genesis 8:10 the first word in the MT is ויחל. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) suggests emending to וייחל. Everyone seems to accept the BHS and translate this as "waited" just as if the ...
2
votes
2answers
719 views

Could Jesus actually have risen from the dead on the fourth day, instead on the third day?

I was reading Luke 24:7 just now. The verse is about an angel who tells the disciples that Jesus was going to rise the third day. I noticed that it didn’t say on the third day, or after the third day. ...
1
vote
2answers
203 views

In Acts 19:14 - How else could "Seven sons of Skeva" be translated?

In Acts 19:14, Is "Seven Sons of Skeva" a valid translation? Are there any other plausible interpretations? Westcott and Hort / [NA27 variants] ἦσαν δέ τινος Σκευᾶ Ἰουδαίου ἀρχιερέως ἑπτὰ υἱοὶ ...