Questions tagged [source-criticism]

Analysis for the purpose of dividing a text into its composite sources.

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What is the origin of 2 Peter 2:4 and Jude 1:6?

2 Peter 2:4 KJV — For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; Jude 1:6 KJV — And the angels ...
9 votes
3 answers
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What evidence supports Matthew as Paul's source?

There is a noteworthy scholarly position that Matthew was the first Gospel written. As such, it may have even been the first New Testament book written. If this is correct, it is likely that Matthew ...
12 votes
2 answers
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When was the book of Joel written?

The word of the LORD that came to Joel the son of Pethuel. Hear this, ye old men, and give ear, all ye inhabitants of the land. Hath this been in your days, or in the days of your fathers? Tell ye ...
4 votes
5 answers
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Genesis 22:19 - where is Isaac?

Genesis 22 describes the famous binding of Isaac narrative. During the beginning of the event, Abraham and Isaac’s ascent to the mountain is described: “Early in the morning Abraham got up and ...
7 votes
4 answers
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When did Jonah compose his prayer in chapter 2?

Almost the entity of Jonah, chapter 2 is a prayer to God: Jonah prayed to the Lord his God from the belly of the fish. He said: In my trouble I called to the Lord, And He answered me; From ...
0 votes
3 answers
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Was Matthew written based on Paul's first letter to the Corinthians?

There's many allusions to the teaching of Paul as recorded in his first letter to the Corinthians in the gospel of Matthew. There's a passage in the sermon on the mount which seems to come from the ...
4 votes
2 answers
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Why do Isaiah 37 and 2 Kings 19 contain the same verses?

If you read Isaiah 37 and compare it with 2 Kings 19, you will notice that these verses are the exact same. How is it possible or why is it that these verses are identical? Isaiah 37 2 Kings 19
10 votes
3 answers
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What are the arguments against Marcan Priority?

Closely Related: - What are the arguments in favor of Markan priority? - What are the arguments in favor of Matthean Priority? What are the objections against Marcan Priority? Wikipedia, Marcan ...
10 votes
5 answers
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How did Matthew and Luke get different prices for sparrows?

I got the idea for this question from: Have any biblical scholars investigated the question of why Luke was getting a better price on his sparrows than Matthew?—@browserdotsys on Twitter The tweet ...
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1 answer
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Why are passages in the Book of Joshua repeated in the Book of Judges (Jos. 15:15-19, Jdgs. 1:11-15)?

In these two parallel sets of passages, why is the Book of Judges merely restating that which was stated in Joshua 15? Joshua 15:15-19, NASB: Then he went up from there against the inhabitants of ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Hebrews 10:5-7 - distorted quotation? [duplicate]

Hebrews 10:5-7 contains a quotation from Psalm 40 from the Septuagint that greatly varies from Masoretic version that is present in our bibles today: “So when he came into the world, he said, “...
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4 answers
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How do those who reject Q explain Matthew 5:38-48 and Luke 6:27-36?

Matthew 5:38-48 from the Sermon on the Mount and Luke 6:27-36 from the Sermon on the Plain are clearly related, but there are also substantial differences including reorderings. I've coloured the ...
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2 answers
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If Matthew was an eyewitness why would he rely on Mark?

If Matthew was an eyewitness to the events of the life of Jesus, why did Matthew then base his gospel off Mark's?
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7 answers
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In which language was the name "Jesus" written and how was it pronounced in Matthew 1:1 first?

In which language was the name "Jesus" written and how was it pronounced in Matthew 1:1 first? This question is asked to find out if the claims of Nehemiah Gordon in his book The Naming of Jesus in ...
5 votes
3 answers
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Why are "Judah" and "Israel" distinguished in many verses BEFORE the split of the two kingdoms?

Similar questions have been asked previously, but answers emphasized the era after the split of the tribes. Even though Judah is one of the tribes of Israel, why are Judah and Israel often ...
2 votes
1 answer
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What evidence is there that Mark could have been dependent upon Luke?

There are approximately 106 pericopes shared by Mark & Luke (see Synoptic Abstract by Tyson & Longstaff). Most hold to the view that this shared material - and the frequency of its common ...
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4 answers
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Why does Matthew use the Greek word 'seismos' in Matt. 8:24 instead of the 'lailaps' which is used in Mk 4:37 and Lk 8:23?

Matthew uses the Greek word 'seismos' (σεισμὸς) in 8:24. This word is used 9 times in the NT and 8 of the 9 times it is translated as "earthquake." In Matthew 8:24 most translations ...
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1 answer
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Are there any authorities who have argued for the literary independence of the Synoptic Gospels?

Which scholars, historical figures, or churches have argued that the synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) were all written independently without access to any of the other gospels? What ...
1 vote
1 answer
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What are the arguments in favor of Lukan Priority?

The Synoptic Problem explores the relationship among the three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Lukan (or Lucan) Priority is the view that Luke was the first of these documents to be written....
2 votes
2 answers
260 views

Were the last 12 verses of the Gospel of Mark in fact taken from Luke?

Were the last 12 verses of the Gospel of Mark in fact taken from Luke? Here it states that in the Gospel of Mark there is an added portion (Mark 16:9-20) In this reference I didn't find the following ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Trinitarian baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19 vs Didache 7:2

Both the Gospel of Matthew and the Didache present a very similar "Trinitarian baptismal formula": “Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father ...
1 vote
2 answers
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Why does Matthew soften hard statements from Mark?

For example, in Mark 10:18 Mark says: "Why do you call me good?" Jesus asked him. "No one is good except God alone." (CSB) But in Matthew 19:17: "Why do you ask me about ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Remains of Aramaic/Hebrew version of Matthew

We know from several early Christian theologists that the Gospel of Matthew existed in a Hebrew or Aramaic version before parts of NT that were written in Greek were translated into Syriac in the ...
21 votes
5 answers
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What are the arguments in favor of Matthean Priority?

Closely Related: - What are the arguments in favor of Markan priority? - What are the arguments against Marcan Priority? The synoptic problem refers to scholars' attempts to understand the ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Resources on the continuity and discontinuity debate of Ezekiel 1-39 and 40-48

I am writing a research paper regarding the continuity of Ezekiel 1–39 and 40–48, I am trying to prove that the author of Ezekiel 1–39 is the same figure 40–48. I am trying to find both, the ...
23 votes
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Who named the wrong priest in Mark 2:26?

Here's a story Jesus told about David according to Mark 2:23-28 (ESV): One Sabbath he was going through the grainfields, and as they made their way, his disciples began to pluck heads of grain. And ...
5 votes
2 answers
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What would be good sources for the evidence for the change in language between Prot/Deutero/Trito Isaiah in the Bible?

I am very interested in understanding the biblical book of Isaiah. I have read in numerous places that virtually no modern scholars view the book as having been written only by the historical Isaiah ...
9 votes
4 answers
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What are the common solutions to the minor agreements of Matthew and Luke?

There are a number of points where Matthew and Luke agree against Mark in their reading, but which cannot be explained by their supposed reliance on the Q source. For instance, in the narrative of ...
1 vote
1 answer
301 views

Was Daniel's story of Nebuchadnezzar taken from Ludlul Bel Nemeqi?

The Ludlul Bel Nemeqi is often called the Babylonian Job due to it's similarities to Job however there are more similarities to the Book of Daniel, for instance, The story is about a king who goes mad ...
6 votes
2 answers
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Does archaeological evidence contradict the Documentary Hypothesis?

In an interview, the late Dr. Clifford Wilson implied that archaeology has shown that the Pentateuch could not have been compiled the way that the JEDP theory suggests: Professor G. Ernest Wright, ...
12 votes
4 answers
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Was the Beloved Disciple the author of the Fourth Gospel?

One very common interpretation of the Gospel of John is that the Beloved Disciple was the author of the book. (Presumably, he was interested in obscuring his identity for some reason.) But other ...
3 votes
3 answers
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Why does Jesus include "persecutions" in the list of things received by his followers?

Shortly after Jesus' interaction with the rich young man: Peter began to say to him, “See, we have left everything and followed you.” Jesus said, “Truly, I say to you, there is no one who has left ...
6 votes
1 answer
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Should we take up our cross daily or not?

In Luke 9:23 in the HCSB Jesus is quoted saying "If anyone wants to come with Me, he must deny himself, take up his cross daily and follow Me." In the parallel passages in Mark 8, and ...
1 vote
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Why Hebrew in Acts 21:37-40

Why Did Paul use Hebrew in Acts 21:37-40? Does His use of Hebrew in this passage indicate or prove that Jesus taught in Aramaic or Hebrew and that the gospels only contain the voice of Jesus and not ...
9 votes
2 answers
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Does the acrostic structure of Lamentations indicate a composition from 5 separate psalms?

It's not noticeable in many English translations, but Lamentations makes heavy use of the acrostic technique of Hebrew poetry. As a note in the NET Bible mentions: Chapters 1-4 are arranged in ...
6 votes
3 answers
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Are the two creation accounts in Genesis 1 and 2 likely to be from different sources? If so what sources?

Are the two creation accounts in Genesis 1 and 2 likely to be from different sources? If so, what sources? What are some arguments for this?
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4 answers
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Who led the people of Israel out of Egypt in Jude 5?

Lest anyone think this is a "stump the chumps" question, I am specifically interested in support for a particular reading of this text. It is disputed which manuscript should be followed in Jude 5. ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Did John make use of a 'Signs Source'?

I have read that some source-critics have suggested the Fourth Gospel, 'John', consisted of at least three sources, with the primary one being a 'Signs Source'. As I understand it, the Signs Source is ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Why should we think the Q source was an earlier source than Mark?

While I buy the evidence for Q based on parallels in Matthew and Luke that don't use Mark as a source, I find it curious that Q is often thought to be earlier than Mark. Is there evidence for this? ...
5 votes
3 answers
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Why is Moses referred to in the third person in Pentateuch, according to conservative commentators?

Since Moses is regarded as the author of the Pentateuch, it seems odd that he is so often referred to in the third person, which naturally gives the impression that Moses is not narrating. This ...
16 votes
2 answers
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Is there a literary dependence of 2 Peter upon the Revelation?

This is a mild suspicion I've held for a while, and on occasion I will attempt a search to see if any scholars have expressed the view, but so far I have found nothing other than generic bible verse ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Is there an extant source for Jerome's version of Ecclesiasticus 24:25?

Vulgate Ecclesiaticus (חכמת ישוע בן סירא/Σοφία Ἰησοῦ ϒἱοῦ Σιράχ/Sirach) 24:1-30 reads as follows (for the sake of the reader, and of the question, the Douay-Rheims-Challoner translation thereof will ...
5 votes
1 answer
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Revelation source criticism

In Revelation, the book can be divided into two or three parts with different genres: Chapter 1 - Prologue Chapter 2 to 3 - Epistles Remainder - Apocalyptic Prophecy Do any scholars posit that the ...
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Does Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 3:24 Describe Events Which Took Place on the Same Day?

There are several questions on this site concerning the differences between the account of creation in Genesis 1 and Genesis 2 and some related topics. A few: Differences in Genesis creation stories **...
7 votes
1 answer
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Did Luke have a priestly source?

Luke begins with several events that take place at the Temple: Angel appearing to Zechariah in the Holy Place [Luke 1:5-25] - Jesus' circumcision [Luke 2:21] The presentation in the Temple [...
10 votes
5 answers
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What is the significance of the author of Genesis using two different designations for God?

In Genesis 4:25; 6:3,6-8, 9-22; 7:1, 9, 16a/b; 8:1-19, 20-22, we see the author using two designations for God, “Yahweh”, and “Elohim”. What is the significance, if any, of the author bouncing back ...
2 votes
1 answer
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What is Isaiah 24-27, and when was it written?

The view that the book of Isaiah, as we have it, came from multiple authors has wide support across the spectrum of scholars. Most often, Isaiah is divided into at least three sections: proto-Isaiah (...
8 votes
2 answers
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Why are 2 Peter and Jude usually together in commentaries?

It seems pretty standard for commentaries to be written on the combination of 2 Peter and Jude. Obviously they both share the subject matter of false teachers, but I assume there are reasons beyond ...
7 votes
1 answer
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Did someone really name their son Fool?

In 1st Samuel 25, we read about Abigail's first husband, who is named Nabal. Near the end of the story, she pleads with David to save his life: My lord should not pay attention to this wicked man ...
5 votes
4 answers
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Could the Gospel of Matthew be dependent on Luke's Gospel?

Why is it that a possible Gospel dependency order of Mark-Luke-Matthew without requiring 'Q' is considered particularly unlikely, when compared to other possible solutions to the synoptic problem? Do ...