Questions tagged [septuagint]

The Koine Greek translation of the Jewish Scriptures; often abbreviated "LXX".

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What does the clause ἐκ πίστεώς μου add to Habakkuk 2:4 LXX?

The NT leans very heavily on Habakkuk 2:4 and it is clear that it is not looking at the Hebrew, which reads like this: [Rom 1:17 NKJV] (17) For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith ...
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Why does Proverb 22:20 say “thirty sayings” in some translations and “excellent things” in others?

I'm not sure if this question has a simple answer or not since I don't read any Hebrew, but when I was reading through Proverbs 22 this morning with my wife, her translation at verse 20 said Have I ...
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Why are the Hebrew and Greek of Job 22:21 so different?

In Hebrew (and most modern translations), Job 22:21 reads: הַסְכֶּן־נָא עִמּוֹ וּשְׁלם בָּהֶם תְּֽבוֹאַתְךָ טוֹבָֽה׃ Agree with God, and be at peace; thereby good will come to you. (ESV) The Vulgate ...
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Is there significance to Jesus' tunic being kept intact while the Temple veil was torn apart?

Matthew, Mark, and John record casting lots to divide Jesus' clothing. John adds the Old Testament quote from Psalm 22:18 and provides other details: When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they ...
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Was Job short-changed in the end?

The LXX and Masoretic Text (MT) disagree concerning the number of oxen and donkeys which Job once owned; however, both the LXX and MT are mathematically consistent in that Job received double from the ...
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What is the significance of the selective use of εἰμι in expressions of self identification in LXX-Genesis?

In his commentary of Exodus, Dennis Prager makes this statement: Hebrew does not have a word for the present tense of the verb "to be." In other words, there is no Hebrew word for "am&...
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What are the *theologically significant* differences between MT and DSS?

Rather than a comprehensive list of every difference between MT and DSS (or MT and LXX), I'm interested in scholarly assessments of differences that are deemed theologically significant or seem to be ...
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Rock or no Rock?

There are many places in the Hebrew OT that refer to YHWH/God as "The Rock"; for example: Deut 32:4 - "The Rock! His work is perfect, For all His ways are just; A God of faithfulness ...
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Did the Greek Septuagint ignore the Hebrew name change of Mikayehu מִיכָֽיְהוּ to Mikah מִיכָ֔ה in Judges 17:4-5?

Did the Greek Septuagint ignore the Hebrew name change of Mikayehu מִיכָֽיְהוּ to Mikah מִיכָ֔ה in Judges 17:4-5? When we read "Judges" / שֹֽׁפְטִ֑ים Shoftim 17:4-5 in the Tanakh, we notice ...
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Does the LXX translate חוללתי as γεννάω to create an allusion to Genesis 4?

In various places Proverbs personifies Wisdom as a woman. In one she deviates from teaching to speak about herself. She starts by announcing her "קָנָה" at the beginning: 22 “The Lord possessed me ...
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How did “Sirens” arise in the Septuagint translation of Isaiah 13:21?

I am reading in the book of Isaiah at chapter 13 verse 21 in the King James Bible , and I notice in this bible, and in other English bible translations, that owls and jackals are commonly mentioned. ...
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In 2 Kings 17:11 LXX, what are “κοινωνοὺς καὶ ἐχάραξαν”?

The YLT, based on the Hebrew has: 2 Kings 17:11 YLT(i) 11 and make perfume there in all high places, like the nations that Jehovah removed from their presence, and do evil things to provoke Jehovah, ...
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Why does the LXX occcassionally have “fear God” instead of “fear the Lord” in Proverbs?

The fear of the LORD is a phrase used throughout Proverbs. The phrase commonly uses the noun יראת, but twice is the verb יָרֵא and twice the adjective יָרֵא. The Septuagint (LXX) is fairly consistent ...
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Does the LXX's Adonai, Lord, Eloai, Sabaoth mean Adonai was understood as the proper form of address for יהוה צבאות?

When Hannah asks for a son, she calls upon the LORD of Hosts: And she vowed a vow and said, “O LORD of hosts, if you will indeed look on the affliction of your servant and remember me and not forget ...
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Did the Early Church potentially use corrupted Septuagint or Masoretic Texts?

For the most part the Masoretic Text (MT) aligns with the Dead Sea Scroll (DSS) from the Essene community and the Greek translation Septuagint (LXX) which was compiled from older copies of an older ...
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Literal translation of Hosea 13:14?

In the septuagint, Hosea 13:14 has ἐκ χειρὸς ᾅδου ῥύσομαι αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐκ θανάτου λυτρώσομαι αὐτούς ποῦ ἡ δίκη σου θάνατε ποῦ τὸ κέντρον σου ᾅδη παράκλησις κέκρυπται ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν μου So we would have ...
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How should עֹ֥ז be translated in Psalm 8:3?

Modern translations translate עֹ֥ז as strength. Out of the mouth of babies and infants, you have established strength because of your foes, to still the enemy and the avenger. (Psalm 8:2, ESV) ...
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In 2 Thessalonians 2:1-2 is Paul's reference to “our gathering with him” an allusion to Psalm 46:10 LXX?

Paul associates the coming of Christ with "our gathering together to him": [2Th 2:1-2 NASB] 1 Now we request you, brethren, with regard to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering ...
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Was God's sign in His covenant with Noah something other than a rainbow?

13 I have set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 When I bring clouds over the earth and the bow is seen in the clouds, 15 I will remember my ...
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Why does Jesus' wording of the Shema include the addition of 'and with all your mind?'

The vast majority of translations of Deuteronomy 6:4-5 read something like this: "Hear, O Israel, YHWH is our god; YHWH is one. And thou shalt love YHWH thy god with all thy heart, and with all thy ...
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What did Jesus likely say in John 8:58?

In John 8:58, the author quotes Jesus: . ..πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι ἐγὼ εἰμί (NA28) ...before Abraham was, I am (ESV) Many have understood this as a claim to divinity, and some translations render ...
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How is the Septuagint interpretation of Psalms 40:6 reconciled with the Hebrew text?

The ancient Hebrew and Greek versions of Psalms 40:6 are quite different. The Hebrew version says 'my ears you have opened' whilst the Greek LXX has 'a body you restored to me'. Furthermore in Hebrews ...
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Why is the word “disciple” rarely used by anyone except Jesus?

Luke 14:26 "If anyone comes to me and does not hate father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters--yes, even their own life--such a person cannot be my disciple [μαθητής]. Why is the ...
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Deuteronomy 12:5 LXX - Verb Form in Greek

I've been exploring this verb in Deuteronomy 12:5 about the location of the place that God chooses for worship and sacrifice. In the MT, this points to the future יבחר (will choose, imperfect tense), ...
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Why was the Hebrew “possessed” translated into Greek as “created” in Proverbs 8:22?

Why was the Hebrew "possessed" translated into Greek as "created" in Proverbs 8:22? Proverbs 8:22 English Standard Version “The LORD possessed me (קָ֭נָנִי) at the beginning of ...
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By what Name did God reveal Himself to Abraham?

God is on several accounts called the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. (Even by Jesus himself and by his apostles he is called their God. e.g. Mk 12:26 /Acts 3:3 I quote from this answer (from ...
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In Matthew 6:9, what name is Jesus referring to?

Jesus taught: Mat 6:9 Pray then like this: "Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Matthew/Jesus appears to allude to the Torah which provides the name as "YHVH" (perhaps "Yehovah"): ...
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The Menorah - A Shammash?

Exodus 25:31-37 (KJV) 31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of ...
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Psalm 96 (95) Why does the LXX translate אלילים as δαιμόνια?

Psalm 96 (95) v. 5 (Westminister Leningrad Codex) כִּ֤י ׀ כָּל־אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָעַמִּ֣ים אֱלִילִ֑ים וַֽ֝יהוָ֗ה שָׁמַ֥יִם עָשָֽׂה׃ (LXX) ὅτι πάντες οἱ θεοὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν δαιμόνια, ὁ δὲ κύριος τοὺς ...
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Does Mark 13:14 allude to the Hebrew or to the Greek of Daniel 9:27?

Daniel 9:27 reads differently in the Hebrew and in the Greek and Mark's saying is not an exact match to either version. Is Jesus, in Mark 13:14, referring to what appears in the Hebrew or the Greek OT?...
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Does the Septuagint more accurately translate Genesis 15:6 than English translations?

Genesis 15:6 : ... and he counted it to him for righteousness. KJV. ... and He reckoneth it to him -- righteousness. Young's Literal. ... And He counted it to him for righteousness. Green's Literal. ...
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How might Amos 4:13 LXX come to speak of Christ?

The Hebrew of Amos 4:13 does not mention Christ: [Amo 4:13 NLT] (13) For the LORD is the one who shaped the mountains, stirs up the winds, and reveals his thoughts to mankind. He turns the light of ...
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Is there some problem with God as rock in the LXX Psalms?

The Greek Psalms often (always?) change out “rock” for something non-metaphorical when it refers to God. For instance, Psalm 18:46(27)a: The LORD lives, and blessed be my rock (ṣûrî). In the LXX (...
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Why does the Greek Septuagint of Genesis 34:3 refer to Dinah as a virgin?

In relation to a question, Does Isaiah 7:14 refer to a virgin? καὶ προσέσχεν τῇ ψυχῇ Δινας τῆς θυγατρὸς Ιακωβ καὶ ἠγάπησεν τὴν παρθένον καὶ ἐλάλησεν κατὰ τὴν διάνοιαν τῆς παρθένου αὐτῇ Greek ...
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Why did the Masoretes take away 100 (or 50) years from the age of the fathers at their first sons' dates of birth?

The Septuagint (along with the Samaritan Pentateuch) and Flavius Josephus in his Jewish Antiquities allow for about 6 to 7 hundred more years from our days back to the Flood (which accordingly would ...
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In Ephesians 2:12, Ephesians 4:18 and Colossians 1:21 what does Paul mean by ἀπαλλοτριόομαι?

Eph 2:12 NLT - In those days you were living apart from Christ. You were excluded (ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι) from citizenship among the people of Israel, and you did not know the covenant promises God had made ...
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Psalm 22:1 - Masoretic and Septuagint

The septuagint appears to read differently from the Masoretic text in Psalm 22:1 and I wondered why this might be ? אֵלִ֣י אֵ֭לִי לָמָ֣ה עֲזַבְתָּ֑נִי רָחֹ֥וק מִֽ֝ישׁוּעָתִ֗י דִּבְרֵ֥י ...
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In the Lamentations 4:21-22 (LXX), what is the significance of using Ιδουμαίας and then Εδωμ to identify the daughter of Edom?

In Lamentations, the phrase "daughter of Edom" is repeated in consecutive verses: Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, you who dwell in the land of Uz; but to you also the cup shall ...
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Since the LXX says Wisdom was created at Proverbs 8:22 but begotten at 8:25, does this disprove “begotten not made?”

At Proverbs 8:22 in the LXX the speaker is created with the Greek κτίζω but in verse 25 he is begotten with γεννά με. This speaks of the same event. According to advanced Hebrew lexicons like BDB ...
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How reliable are the Dead Sea Scrolls as a base to compare against the Masoretic text and the LXX?

I often find people comparing other manuscripts (e.g., Masoretic text, LXX) against the Dead Sea Scrolls in order to determine their accuracy. For example, this thread asked how reliable the LXX was ...
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What does the article signify in the Greek translation of Genesis 1:1?

The beginning of the Bible states: In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1:1 ESV) בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָֽרֶץ In the beginning God made the ...
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Approximately how many manuscripts of the Old Testament are extant today?

When looking into this, the closest I got to an answer is that the Masoretes were great copyists, but that they also had a way of disposing of older manuscripts, through the process of burial, and ...
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LXX Job 39:20 “snort” vs “breast”

How did the translators of the LXX out of the Hebrew text of Job 39:20 decide to use the word "breast" where the Hebrew text (Stuttgarsenia) has the Hebrew word "snort" (Brown Driver Briggs 637b)?
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Where can I find a free LXX/English interlinear? [closed]

I'm looking for an interlinear Greek English Septuagint Old Testament. Is there a free one?
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Are the birds formed from the sea? (Gen 1:20)

According to the Jewish Publication Society (JPS) and the Lexham English Septuagint (LES), birds and such seem to be formed from the waters: God said, "Let the waters bring forth swarms of ...
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What meaning does the verb ἐτελέσθησαν have in Psalms 105:28 LXX (106:28 KJV)?

καὶ ἐτελέσθησαν τῷ Βεελφεγωρ καὶ ἔφαγον θυσίας νεκρῶν I reviewed the Hebrew word צָמַד (tzamad), and it seems to mean “join” or “fasten.” When I reviewed LSJ’s entry on τελέω (τέλω), I didn’t see any ...
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Jesus Use of the LXX

Why did Jesus read the LXX,not the 39 books of the OT? I know the LXX is the Greek translation of the Hebrew and does not contain the Apocrypha. What am I missing here?
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Is Romans 1:17 ambiguous?

ESV: 17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.” The NIV and KJV read similarly. I have always understood the ...
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Is it corruption of the LXX for adding Deut 32:43 or of the Masoretic for lacking it as quoted in Hebrews 1:6?

What passage is the author of "To the Hebrews" quoting in Hebrews 1:6?: Heb 1:6 And again, when he reintroduces the firstbegotten into the populated lands, he says, "And let all the angels of God ...
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The religious identity of those who translated Psalms 24:1 into the LXX

Some time ago, while writing a research paper, I was reading the LXX of Psa. 24:1. The Hebrew text states, א לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר ליהוה הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ תֵּבֵל וְיֹשְׁבֵי בָהּ which may be translated ...