Questions tagged [second-temple-judaism]

Questions about Jewish history, practices, culture, and beliefs between the return from Babylonian captivity and the destruction of the temple by Titus.

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13
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1answer
3k views

Accuracy of Alfred Edersheim's "Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah"

Edersheim's book The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah has been called "one of the best known and most important references on the life of Christ ever written." However, a lot has changed in the ...
11
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1answer
137 views

What kind of reception did Jubilees have in first century Judaism?

Was the Book of Jubilees well known during the period of and before the early church? In Stephen's speech in Acts, he makes a reference to the mediation of law through angels that while absent from ...
6
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3answers
8k views

In John 18, who was high priest at the time of Jesus' arrest?

First the text in John 18 (NIV) seems to make clear that Caiaphas was high priest: 18:13 They bound him and brought him first to Annas, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that ...
4
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1answer
72 views

Is there any evidence to support the "different calendar theory" often invoked to resolve chronological discrepancies in the gospels?

Is there any evidence that there was a confusion of calendars in the first century, such that dates reported within the NT might vary as to the "actual" date of an event, and some authors (...
3
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1answer
158 views

Could someone other than a Levite legitimately serve as a priest?

There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the division of Abijah. His wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. (Luke 1:5) ...
3
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1answer
472 views

Acts 15:5 - Could Christians remain Pharisees? [closed]

Acts 15:5 reads: But some from the religious party of the Pharisees who had believed stood up and said, “It is necessary to circumcise the Gentiles and to order them to observe the law of Moses....
3
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3answers
411 views

Why does Matthew 26:17 seem to ignore/contradict the instructions and schedule of Leviticus 23:5-7?

In Leviticus 23, Passover completely precedes the Feast of Unleavened Bread, with the first day being a day of convocation: [Lev 23:5-8 NLT] (5) "The LORD's Passover begins at sundown on the ...
2
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4answers
138 views

In Matthew 27:62, what is "the day of preparation"?

I investigated this matter at https://judaism.stackexchange.com and I was assured that there is no such Jewish holy day. So to what does the term actually refer? [Matthew 27:62 NKJV] (62) On the next ...
2
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2answers
116 views

Did Pharisees use Ezra 6:11-12 to condemn Jesus in Mark 14:58?

Ezra 6:11-12 provides terms of punishment for anyone who attempts to tear down the 2nd Temple : [Ezra 6:11] "I also issue an order that whoever alters this decree shall have a beam removed from his ...
2
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1answer
54 views

Sources for practice of festival of Booths in first-century, second temple Judaism

My understanding is that the festival of Booths (i.e., Sukkot) in first-century, second temple Judaism was a seven-day harvest festival that included petitions for rain and sunlight (for better crop ...
2
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2answers
56 views

When Jesus says "if any man would come after me, let him deny himself" is he using a idiom of the era or has his phrase since become an idiom?

Matthew 16:24 Then Jesus said to his disciples, “Whoever wants to be my disciple must deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me. I was wondering whether or not the phrase "deny ...
2
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1answer
65 views

Public reading of the Law during the Festival of Tabernacles at Jesus' time

Deuteronomy 31:9 — So Moses wrote down this law and gave it to the Levitical priests, who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and to all the elders of Israel. 10Then Moses commanded them: “At ...
2
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2answers
1k views

Was "no man knows the day or the hour" (Mt. 24:36) a reference to Rosh Hashanah?

Matthew 34:36[NIV] ~ “But about that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son,[f] but only the Father. It's become common in Messianic Jewish circles and among others who ...
2
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1answer
106 views

History: Might Herod Agrippa have prosecuted Christians for being part of an illegal religion?

From what I understand Roman law had two very significant statutes regarding religion: a law requiring that the Roman deities be acknowledged by a periodic sacrifice a law permitting Judaism to ...
1
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3answers
46 views

Were the אוּרִ֥ים Urim & תֻמִּֽים Thummim ever returned (after the Babylonian exile) to fulfill Ezra 2:63?

In Ezra 2:63, invalid kohanim could not eat at the second temple until אוּרִ֥ים Urim & תֻמִּֽים Thummim approved their meals with valid levites : "The Tirshatha ordered them not to eat of the ...
1
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3answers
82 views

What did Second Temple Judaism think about the Messiah/Christ?

“But Jesus remained silent. And the high priest said to him, “I adjure you by the living God, tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God.”” ‭‭Matthew‬ ‭26:63‬ ‭ What is understood by the Christ? ...
1
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2answers
81 views

Were the "scribes" also clearly partisan as were the Pharisees and Sadducees?

IE: If we knew that someone was a "scribe" would we automatically know their religious bent as we do with Pharisees and Sadducees?: [Act 23:8 NLT] (8) for the Sadducees say there is no resurrection ...
1
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3answers
126 views

In John 7:37 does John link "the last day" with "the last day of the feast"?

There are many places in the OT and the NT of the KJV that refer to "the last days" but there are none in John's gospel. Instead, he uses the singular, "the last day" six times to ...
1
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2answers
60 views

In Galatians 1:14, what kind of "levels" were there among the Pharisees in the first century?

[Gal 1:14 NIV] (14) I was advancing in Judaism beyond many of my own age among my people and was extremely zealous for the traditions of my fathers. Paul seems to be writing to gentiles and explains ...
0
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2answers
72 views

What's wrong with flight on the Sabbath?

Matthew 24:20 Pray that your flight will not take place in winter or on the Sabbath. To what does this refer - why the concern about flight on the Sabbath?
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1answer
379 views

History: Per Leviticus 19:27 would the apostles have had side locks? [closed]

[Lev 19:27 ESV] (27) You shall not round off the hair on your temples or mar the edges of your beard. Note: Related article from Jewish Encylopedia.
0
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1answer
100 views

In Acts 4:7 what is the personal or family name of the captain of the temple guard?

What personal/family name or designation (i.e. from Galilee or son of so-and-so) did the CAPTAIN of the TEMPLE GUARD use at the time of Jesus' trial? A historical fiction book written by David K. ...
0
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1answer
25 views

In 2 Chronicles 33:4 what does it mean that YHVH "my name will remain in Jerusalem forever"?

[2Ch 33:4 NLT] (4) He built pagan altars in the Temple of the LORD, the place where the LORD had said, "My name will remain in Jerusalem forever." WLC וּבָנָ֥ה מִזְבְּחֹ֖ות בְּבֵ֣ית ...