Questions tagged [referent-identification]

For use on questions where it is unclear what a pronoun or other vague identifier refers to.

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8 answers
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Does Granville Sharp's Rule indicate that “God” and “Savior” share a referent in Titus 2:13 and 2 Peter 1:1?

Granville Sharp's rule states that when a clause has two nouns (or other substantive) in the same case, connected by a copulative kai ("and"), that are not proper nouns (i.e. not someone's name), ...
Tony Jays's user avatar
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32 votes
12 answers
62k views

What is “sin that leads to death” in 1 John 5:16?

1 John 5:16 (NIV) Emphasis Added If you see any brother or sister commit a sin that does not lead to death, you should pray and God will give them life. I refer to those whose sin does not lead to ...
Richard's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
519 views

What does "Scripture" refer to in 2 Timothy 3?

This is in follow-up to this Q & A Paul wrote the following passage in 2 Timothy 3: 14 But you must continue in the things which you have learned and been assured of, knowing from whom you have ...
4 votes
5 answers
603 views

Did the writer of Psalm 45:6 think that the human king to which this verse was addressed was Almighty God?

Psalm 45:6 of the American King James Version says, Your throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the scepter of your kingdom is a right scepter. Did the writer of this verse think that the human king ...
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3 votes
5 answers
1k views

Is the promise of "power" in Acts 1:8 only for the apostles or for Christians in all ages?

Acts 1:7-8 (NIV): 7 He said to them: “It is not for you to know the times or dates the Father has set by his own authority. 8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you ...
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10 votes
14 answers
13k views

In 2 Thessalonians 2:7 who is holding back the "secret power of lawlessness"?

2 Thessalonians 2:7 (AMP): For the mystery of lawlessness (that hidden principle of rebellion against constituted authority) is already at work in the world, [but it is] restrained only until [a]he ...
Reinstate Monica - Goodbye SE's user avatar
8 votes
5 answers
2k views

In Ephesians 2:2, to what or whom does "the authority of the air" refer?

In Eph. 2:2, it is written, in which once ye did walk according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of ...
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7 votes
6 answers
598 views

Who are "the Jews" in John's gospel?

Were "the Jews" in John 10:19-21 the same group of people or a different group than the ones mentioned in 10:24-39? Some in vs 21 seem on the verge of believing in Him, while the ones in the second ...
user17480's user avatar
13 votes
6 answers
8k views

Who are the disciples to fear in Matthew 10:28?

Who is Jesus telling the disciples to fear here in Matthew 10:28 (ESV): "And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell....
Soldarnal's user avatar
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12 votes
4 answers
10k views

Who is the "us" in Genesis 11:7?

Who is the plural referring to in Genesis 11:7 if it's GOD himself (or Yahweh) who has confused the language of people to stop the building of the Babel Tower? Verse from the NIV Bible: "Come, ...
Fabrizio Mazzoni's user avatar
12 votes
18 answers
30k views

Which law was Paul referring to in 1 Corinthians 14:34?

1 Corinthians 14:34 NASB 34 The women are to keep silent in the churches; for they are not permitted to speak, but are to subject themselves, just as the Law also says. Which law was Paul ...
collen ndhlovu's user avatar
8 votes
5 answers
53k views

Job1:6: Who are the "sons of God"?

Who are the sons of God in the following verse? Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them. (KJV, Job 1:6)
brilliant's user avatar
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4 votes
4 answers
19k views

Who are the 12 apostles of the lamb?

And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. (Revelation 21:14 KJV) To whom does the "twelve apostles of the Lamb" refer? Is this the ...
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4 votes
7 answers
1k views

Who is “The Prophet” in John 6:14?

John 6:14 Therefore when the people saw the sign which He had performed, they said, “This is truly the Prophet who is to come into the world.” (NASB) Who is “The Prophet” and is he different from ...
Lilias Carmichael's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
288 views

Does τὸν ὄντα correspond to יהוה in Wisdom 13:1?

Wisdom 13:1-5 (translation mine) 1 Truly vain are all men by [their] nature in whom there is not the knowledge of God: who, though they have seen the good things [of creation], do not know him that is....
Sola Gratia's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
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The children/sons of God - Job 38:7 & Romans 8:16 - same children or different children?

This question is similar to one asked here, but applied to a different combination of texts & contexts. From Romans 8:16: The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the ...
Hold To The Rod's user avatar
0 votes
4 answers
1k views

In John 1:9 is it "the true light was coming into the world" or "lights every man coming into the world"?

Are both readings plausible or is it clear from the grammar (not just the context) which is correct? New American Standard Bible There was the true Light which, coming into the world, enlightens ...
Ruminator's user avatar
21 votes
8 answers
12k views

Who subjected the creation to futility in Rom. 8:20-21?

Paul says that creation was subjected to futility in Romans 8:20-21 ESV: For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope that the creation ...
Jon Ericson's user avatar
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14 votes
4 answers
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What are the "generations" in Genesis 2:4?

Genesis 2:4: These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens.(ESV) (BHS) אֵ֣לֶּה תֹולְדֹ֧ות הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם ...
Susan's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
2k views

If Jude 5 says "Lord", does it still refer to Jesus?

A while back Dan asked what seems to be a difficult text-critical question regarding Jude 5: whether it says "Jesus" or "the Lord" led the people out of the land. One of the reasons the UBS committee ...
Soldarnal's user avatar
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7 votes
8 answers
2k views

Was John in the Spirit on the "Day of the Lord" or "Sunday" in Revelation 1:10?

I have a translation of the New Testament in my hands, in which Revelation 1:10 is rendered as "I was in the Spirit on Sunday". When I looked up the same verse in some other translations, I saw "I was ...
brilliant's user avatar
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6 votes
5 answers
13k views

What did Jesus mean in John 6:26?

Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of the loaves, and were filled. (John 6:26, KJV) When Jesus says "but ...
Skylar Adams's user avatar
6 votes
13 answers
1k views

Who is the True God and Eternal Life?

1Jn 5:20 KJV And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the ...
Faith Mendel's user avatar
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5 votes
5 answers
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In 1 Timothy 2:4 does "all" refer to all men or to all "sorts" of men?

In Interlinear Greek-English New Testament, Baker books, in the literal translation section of 1 Timothy 2:4 is "who all [sorts] of men desires to be saved". I think that pantas here is being seen as ...
C. Stroud's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
1k views

What and where are the "springs of living water" in Revelation 7:9-17?

Looking at the following texts: Revelation 7:9 After this I looked, and there before me was a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language, ...
karma's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
161 views

Is the promise of "works" in John 14:12 only for the apostles or for Christians in all ages?

John 14:8-14 (NIV) says: ⁸Philip said, “Lord, show us the Father and that will be enough for us.” ⁹Jesus answered: “Don’t you know me, Philip, even after I have been among you such a long time? ...
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3 votes
1 answer
1k views

Does Numbers 3:43 refer to "all" the firstborn sons of Israel?

Total number of firstborn sons (KJV) Numbers 3:43 43 And all the firstborn males by the number of names, from a month old and upward, of those that were numbered of them, were twenty and two ...
collen ndhlovu's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
3k views

In 1 Corinthians 10:9 why does Paul say that the Israelites "tested Christ"?

1 Corinthians 10 (NIV): 1 For I do not want you to be ignorant of the fact, brothers and sisters, that our ancestors were all under the cloud and that they all passed through the sea. 2 They were all ...
Ruminator's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
948 views

To what does "the word of God and testimony of Jesus Christ" refer in Revelation 1:2?

In the opening of Revelation we read (NIV emphasis mine): The revelation from Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel ...
Soldarnal's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
388 views

Are John 15:1-11 and Revelation 3:14-22 referring to the same group of people?

I find striking similarities between John 15:1-11 and Revelation 3:14-22: John 15:1-11 (ESV) “I am the true vine, and my Father is the vinedresser. 2 Every branch in me that does not bear fruit he ...
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2 votes
3 answers
251 views

Is "the day of the LORD" a particular day or any visitation?

The phrase "day of the LORD" is used multiple times in scripture. Do they all point to the same event or to multiple events? Barnes, in "Barnes' Notes" suggests that it is descriptive rather than ...
Ruminator's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
3k views

What sort of "slave" is Paul referring to in 1 Corinthians 7:21-23?

Paul writes the following in his first letter to the Corinthian church: Were you called while a slave? Do not worry about it; but if you are able also to become free, rather do that. For he who was ...
Jas 3.1's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
713 views

In Hebrews 9:26 what does it mean that Christ "did away with the sin"?

Is it referring to "the sin" or to "the sin offering"? NIV Hebrews 9:26 Otherwise Christ would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world. But he has appeared once for all at ...
Ruminator's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
77 views

When does γραφή refer to the Tanakh vs additional holy writ vs writings in general?

The word γραφή ("scripture, writing") is used to refer to a variety of written documents - I'd like to understand the similarity or difference in meaning across 4 passages. It can refer to: ...
Hold To The Rod's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
246 views

To whom does the term "one God" refer in Paul?

The term “one God,” is found in three of Paul’s letters: one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. (Ephesians 4:6) εἷς θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ πάντων ὁ ἐπὶ πάντων καὶ διὰ πάντων ...
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16 votes
6 answers
3k views

Is Luke's "Theophilus" An Actual Person or an Allegorical Person?

I've always wondered if there's any persuasive evidence either way for Theophilus whom Luke addresses in Luke 1:3 and Acts 1:1 being an actual person or an allegorical personification? I mean my ...
Onorio Catenacci's user avatar
12 votes
4 answers
16k views

Sacrifice of the first-born son leads to fury

2 Kings 3:24-27 24 But when the Moabites came to the camp of Israel, the Israelites rose up and fought them until they fled. And the Israelites invaded the land and slaughtered the Moabites. 25 They ...
Phonics The Hedgehog's user avatar
11 votes
5 answers
2k views

Whose faith is the subject of Hebrews 11:11?

Πίστει καὶ αὐτὴ Σάρρα δύναμιν εἰς καταβολὴν σπέρματος ἔλαβεν καὶ παρὰ καιρὸν ἡλικίας, ἐπεὶ πιστὸν ἡγήσατο τὸν ἐπαγγειλάμενον (Hebrews 11:11, Westcott and Hort) The traditional translation of Hebrews ...
ThaddeusB's user avatar
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11 votes
6 answers
41k views

Interpretation of the dead ones in 1 Peter 4:6?

1st Peter 4:6: For for this cause was the gospel preached also to them that are dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit (KJV) Who ...
brilliant's user avatar
  • 4,978
10 votes
6 answers
6k views

Identity of the "we" in 1 John 1:1?

The letter of 1 John begins in verse 1: That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched—this we ...
Soldarnal's user avatar
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9 votes
9 answers
2k views

Did Paul treat God and Jesus as one person in Titus 2:13?

New King James Version Titus 2 text: 11 For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men, 12 teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, ...
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9 votes
6 answers
4k views

Did Jesus address Peter or Satan influencing Peter when he said “Get behind me, Satan!" in Matthew 16:23?

Matthew 16:23 (ESV): 23 But he turned and said to Peter, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a hindrance to me. For you are not setting your mind on the things of God, but on the things of man.” Was ...
user avatar
7 votes
4 answers
1k views

Does רוּחַ, rûaḥ refer to the Spirit of יהוה, YHWH in Ezekiel 37:9?

Does רוּחַ, rûaḥ refer to the Spirit of יהוה, YHWH (Jehovah in the YLT below) in Ezekiel 37:9? BHS: וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י הִנָּבֵ֖א אֶל־הָר֑וּחַ הִנָּבֵ֣א בֶן־אָ֠דָם וְאָמַרְתָּ֨ אֶל־הָר֜וּחַ כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר ׀ ...
E. Cardona's user avatar
5 votes
10 answers
1k views

Is 1 Timothy 1:17 about God (IE: the Father) or about Jesus?

I am primarily interested in the phrase "the King eternal": New International Version 1 Timothy 1:17 Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory for ever ...
Ruminator's user avatar
5 votes
5 answers
3k views

Fourth from whom in Genesis 15:12-16?

(KJV) Genesis 15:12 12 And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, an horror of great darkness fell upon him. 13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy ...
collen ndhlovu's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
3k views

Who is the Pharaoh of Ezekiel?

Numerous times in the Book of Ezekiel a Pharaoh is mentioned. Which Pharaoh(s) is/are Ezekiel talking about? Here are some examples of what I am talking about: Ezekiel 29:2-3 - "Son of man, set ...
Christian Sirolli's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
462 views

What does "fear of the Lord" in 2 Chronicles 14:13-15 mean?

2 Chronicles 14:13-15 13 Asa and the people who were with him pursued them as far as Gerar, and the Ethiopians fell until none remained alive, for they were broken before the Lord and his army. ...
Siju George's user avatar
5 votes
9 answers
5k views

How should the 2300 evenings and mornings be understood in Daniel 8:13-14?

Daniel 8:13-14 NASB 13 Then I heard a holy one speaking, and another holy one said to that particular one who was speaking, “How long will the vision about the regular sacrifice apply, [o]while the ...
collen ndhlovu's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
246 views

Who is "I" in Psalm 4

Several verses in Psalm 4 are in the first person, for example in verse 1: Answer me when I call, O God of my righteousness! You have given me relief when I was in distress. Be gracious to me and ...
Jack Douglas's user avatar
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4 votes
4 answers
882 views

Is there room for interpreting "paradise" in Luke 23:43 as a reference to "Abraham's Bosom" (Luke 16:19-31)?

When Jesus mentioned paradise in Luke 23:43, 43 and Jesus said to him, `Verily I say to thee, To-day with me thou shalt be in the paradise.' (YLT) is it possible that he meant Abraham's bosom, as ...
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