Questions tagged [hapax-legomenon]

A word occuring only once within a given context such as the works of an author or a single text. In Biblical Studies, the "context" is taken to be either the Hebrew Bible in its entirety, or the Greek New Testament in its entirety.

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Luke 11:8 - "Shameless" teaching about Prayer

In Luke 11:8, Jesus is teaching about prayer using a parable following the teaching of the "Lord's Prayer" a few verses earlier. The important word here is a hapex lemomenon, ἀναίδεια (...
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Is the root chosen for translation in Isaiah 14:12 for helel הילל wrong in most translations and lexicons?

Isaiah 14:12 NET "Look how you have fallen from the sky, O shining one, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the ground, O conqueror of the nations!" Every Lexicon, Dictionary, and ...
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Amos 7:1 Septuagint

Why does only the Septuagint mention a swarm of locusts coming from the east? and, the one caterpillar, king Gog?
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Is it the case that Noah, his family, and all the animals had but one small window to breathe through (Gen. 6:16)?

God instructed His faithful servant, Noah to build the ark as follows: Genesis 6:14-16, NASB: "Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it ...
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Genesis 18:12 Origin of “Smooth Flesh” translation

Not a Hebrew scholar here but a Rabbi and I read our versions of Genesis 18:12 and I noticed a difference in wording. When Sarah laughed, his version rendered roughly “shall I have smooth skin” and ...
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Has there been any research into why the writers of Matthew and Luke used ἐπιούσιος (Epiousios) instead of the original Aramaic?

Epiousios (ἐπιούσιος) is found only in Matthew 6:11 and Luke 11:3. The fact that it is found nowhere else in the Koine Greek literature that we have makes it seem reasonable to assume that this word ...
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How best to translate the Hebrew of Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 13:26?

I am wondering how to understand the Hebrew text of Sirach 13:26, which, according to this page, is (the second line): לב אנוש ישנא פניו אם לטוב ואם לרע׃ עקבת לב טוב פנים אורים ושיג ישיח מחשבת עמל׃ ...
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How should νεόφυτος be understood in 1 Timothy 3:6?

1 Tim 3:6  μὴ νεόφυτον ἵνα μὴ τυφωθεὶς εἰς κρίμα ἐμπέσῃ τοῦ διαβόλου (Textus Receptus) In the list of qualifications for an ἐπίσκοπος in 1 Timothy 3, one of the qualifications, which is unique to ...
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Which hermeneutical trump card wins in 1 Timothy: audience, cultural context, historical reference, or translation?

I have read books gifted to me or web articles from searches that each play a "trump card" to win the day for their 1 Timothy interpretation. See Pandora's Pulpit by Roger Sapp or The Junia ...
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Why is Paul called a 'babbler' in Acts 17?

In Acts 17 we read: 16 While Paul was waiting for them in Athens, he was greatly distressed to see that the city was full of idols. 17 So he reasoned in the synagogue with both Jews and God-fearing ...
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What is the significance of τὴν κατατομήν in Phil 3:2? [duplicate]

The Apostle Paul makes several references to circumcision throughout his epistles. However, in his epistle to the Philippians, he uses two different words for circumcision as the following two verses ...
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Word study tools [closed]

I frequently find that there are words which are used only once in scripture or used so sparingly that it is difficult to determine possible meaning based on context (other than what the translators ...
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Was Ba'al relieving himself?

In 1 Kings 18:27, Elijah is recorded as mocking the servants of Ba'al. In this speech as it is recorded in the ESV, Elijah suggests that Ba'al may be indisposed answering nature's call. And at ...
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Could Philippians 4:3 refer to Paul's wife?

Philippians 4:3 reads: ναὶ ἐρωτῶ καὶ σέ, γνήσιε σύζυγε*, συνλαμβάνου αὐταῖς, αἵτινες ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ συνήθλησάν μοι μετὰ καὶ Κλήμεντος καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν συνεργῶν μου, ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα ἐν βίβλῳ ζωῆς. (...
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What is the meaning of "katatomē" in Philippians 3:2?

I'm looking over John Frame's treatment of the third commandment in The Doctrine of the Christian Life (page 509), and he makes an interesting statement regarding Paul's angry words against his pro-...
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Shall I Know Pleasure?(Gen. 18:12)

In Gen. 18:12, Sarah, after hearing the Lord tell Abraham that in a year's time she will bear a son, says, (Gen. 18:12) וַתִּצְחַ֥ק שָׂרָ֖ה בְּקִרְבָּ֣הּ לֵאמֹ֑ר אַחֲרֵ֤י בְלֹתִי֙ הָֽיְתָה־לִּ֣י ...
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Ephesians 1:12 - Translation of "προηλπικότας"

I'm a super-newbie to translating NT Greek, so please be gentle. I'm curious about how to translate "προηλπικότας", found in Ephesians 1:12. A couple of translations: ESV: "were the first to hope" ...
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Is Luke 11:8 about honor or persistence?

In Luke 11:5-8, Jesus tells the parable about a man woken from sleep by his friend asking for bread in the middle of the night. In verse 8 we read (bolding mine): λέγω ὑμῖν, εἰ καὶ⸌ οὐ δώσει αὐτῷ ...
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What is the meaning of mešeq in Genesis 15:2?

In Genesis 15:2, as Abram laments his childlessness to the LORD, he says, and the heir of my house is Eliezer of Damascus (ESV) וּבֶן־מֶ֣שֶׁק בֵּיתִ֔י ה֖וּא דַּמֶּ֥שֶׂק אֱלִיעֶֽזֶר ûb̲en–...
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Does Romans 2:22 refer to temple robbery or sacrilege?

The word in question is ἱεροσυλέω, a hapax in the NT.1 It’s a compound from ἱερός (temple) and συλάω (rob), and most modern translations indicate that "rob temples" is the appropriate meaning here. ...
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In Romans 15:16, what is the meaning of the word «ἱερουργοῦντα»?

The Greek text of Rom. 15:16 according to the Textus Receptus states, ΙϚʹ εἰς τὸ εἶναί με λειτουργὸν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη ἱερουργοῦντα τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ ἵνα γένηται ἡ προσφορὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν ...
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5 votes
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What was Noah instructed to make in Genesis 6:16?

Genesis 6:16a: A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; (KJV) I don’t know what the second part means,1 but I understand "window." Several other English ...
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What is the distinction between πολύσπλαγχνός and οἰκτίρμων in James 5:11?

In the letter of James, 5:11, the author writes: τὸ τέλος Κυρίου εἴδετε, ὅτι πολύσπλαγχνός ἐστιν ὁ Κύριος καὶ οἰκτίρμων English translations frequently seem to render the two adjectives ...
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What basis do we have for defining Sabbatismos in Hebrews 4:9?

The word, Sabbatismos occurs in the Greek NT only once. Strongest Strong's defines it as Sabbath rest; Sabbath observance. Thayer's/Strong's defines it as a Sabbath keeping. Various English ...
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7 votes
3 answers
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Was only the woman to be scourged in Leviticus 19:20?

Does Leviticus 19:20 (KJV) suggest that when a man has sex with an engaged slave woman, the woman, but not the man, is to be scourged? This does not seem fair. And whosoever lieth carnally with a ...
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Was the word ἐπιούσιον used prior to the Lord's prayer? What does it mean?

The word ἐπιούσιον has been translated in numerous ways, but the greatest modern consensus is to translate the word as 'daily.' Was the word ἐπιούσιον used prior to the Lord's prayer (Matthew 6:11; ...
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6 votes
2 answers
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What does the word הַסִּרְפַּד mean?

Isaiah 55:13 uses the word הַסִּרְפַּד which I have seen translated as "brier" or "nettle". What is the precise meaning of this word? Is it used elsewhere?
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How can the Pastoral Epistles not be Pauline?

According to my own reading and Wikipedia: On the basis of their language, content, and other factors, the Pastoral Epistles are today widely regarded as not having been written by the Apostle Paul,...
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How did Biblical translators decide on cypress for the type of wood in Noah's ark?

Reading from Genesis 6:14 (NRSV): Make yourself an ark of cypress wood; make rooms in the ark, and cover it inside and out with pitch. There is a note at "cypress" which says: Meaning of ...
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19 votes
1 answer
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What word best captures the spirit of לִּילִית in Isaiah 34:14?

Isaiah 34:14 in the Masoretic Text is the following: גְשׁוּ צִיִּים אֶת-אִיִּים, וְשָׂעִיר עַל-רֵעֵהוּ יִקְרָא; אַךְ-שָׁם הִרְגִּיעָה לִּילִית, וּמָצְאָה לָהּ מָנוֹח Here, לִּילִית is supposedly ...
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