The Old Testament makes a distinction at times, it seems between heart as center of thoughts (modern mind) and kidneys as center of emotions(also Revelation 2:23 makes the distinction). However, I’m not sure if that distinctions is consistent across OT.

In Romans 10:10, Paul writes:

For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved.

Using the Greek kardias (heart). However, elsewhere he uses the term mind (Romans 1:28).

How are we to understand Paul’s meaning of heart?

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The meaning of "heart", καρδία, in the NT is well attested by any good lexicon. With the exception of Matt 12:40 ("heart of the earth"), the meaning of kadia in the NT is always:

καρδία denotes the seat and center of all physical and spiritual life [Thayer]

BDAG is the same:

Heart as seat of physical, spiritual and mental life

(a) as the center and source of physical life, Acts 14:17, James 5:5

(b) as center and source of the whole inner life with its thinking, feeling, and volition of humans whether in their pre-Christian or Christian experience

  • in an all-inclusive sense, Luke 16:15; 1 Thess 2:4, Rom 8:27, Rev 2:23, Heb 4:12; 1 Cor 14:24; 1 Peter 3:4; Rom 6:17; Matt 18:35; 1 Tim 1:5; 2 Tim 2:22; 1 Peter 1:22; Matt 15:8, 18; Mark 7:6; Rom 10:8, 9, 10; 2 Cor 6:11; Eph 5:19; Col 3:16, etc
  • of inner awareness, 2 Cor 4:6; Eph 1:18; 2 Peter 1:19, etc
  • of the will and its decisions, 2 Cor 9:7, Luke 21:14, Acts 5:4, 11:23; John 13:2, etc
  • of moral decisions, the moral life, of vices and virtues, James 4:8, Acts 15:9, Matt 5:8, etc
  • of the emotions, wishes, desires, Rom 1:24; Matt 5:28, 12:34f; Luke 6:45, 12:34, 24:32; James 3:14, 5:8; Acts 2:26, etc
  • especially of love, Matt 12:30, 33; Luke 10:27; Matt 22:37; Luke 1:17; Phil 1:7
  • of disposition, Luke 1:51, Eph 6:5, Col 3:22, Acts 2:46, Matt 11:25, Col 3:15
  • as the dwelling place of heavenly powers and beings, Rom 5:5; 2 Cor 1:22, Gal 4:6, Eph 3:17

[See also the appendix below.]

Thus, Rom 10:8-10 correctly states that:

But what does it say? “The word is near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart,” that is, the word of faith we are proclaiming: that if you confess with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. For with your heart you believe and are justified, and with your mouth you confess and are saved.

Thus, "heart" here is the inner conviction of the truth that Jesus has risen from the dead, not merely a flippant mental assent!

APPENDIX - Another word, "nous" = "mind"

Note that καρδία (kardia, heart) slightly overlaps with another Greek word, νοῦς (nous, "mind") which has come into English with the same meaning. According to BDAG, νοῦς (nous) has this meaning:

  1. The faculty of intellectual perception
  • (a) mind, intellect, Rom 7:22, 23
  • (b) understanding, mind as facility of thinking, Luke 24:45, Rom 13:18, 17:19, Phil 4:7
  1. way of thinking, mind, attitude as the sum total of the whole mental and moral state of being
  • (a) as possessed by every person, Rom 12:2, Eph 4:23, Rom 1:28, etc
  • (b) specifically of the Christian attitude or way of thinking, 1 Cor 1:10
  1. result of thinking, mind, thought opinion, decree, Rom 14:5, 11:34; 1 Cor 2:16

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