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I have seen many commentaries on the 'thorn' but none that give any attention to the messenger of Satan.

2 Corinthians 12:7 NASB

Because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations, for this reason, to keep me from exalting myself, there was given me a thorn in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me—to keep me from exalting myself! [bold mine]

Did Paul really believe and teach that Satan has messengers, and that they can torment us?

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The answer depends a bit on whether one includes the testimony of Acts or only considers the letters of Paul. In his letters Paul mentions Satan several times as a force that attempts to thwart God's purpose (1 Thess 2:18; 3:5; 1 Cor 5:5; 7:5; 2 Cor 2:11; 4:4; 6:15; 11:14; 12:7; Rom. 1:20), but he speaks of a "messenger/angel of Satan" - as well as demons and evil spirits - only in the verse mentioned in the OP. So if one sticks to his letters, various interpretations are possible in terms of what Paul believed and taught about angels/messengers of Satan.

However, if we factor in the events described in Acts, Paul clearly believed in evil spirits.

Acts 16:16-18 NABRE

16 We met a slave girl with an oracular spirit, who used to bring a large profit to her owners through her fortune-telling. 17 She began to follow Paul and us, shouting, “These people are slaves of the Most High God, who proclaim to you a way of salvation.” 18 She did this for many days. Paul became annoyed, turned, and said to the spirit, “I command you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her.” Then it came out at that moment.

Conclusion: in Paul's letters, it is not clear whether he writes of Satan as sending messengers/angels to torment people such as himself, or whether he is speaking figuratively of an evil bodily condition that keeps him humble. In Acts, however, Paul casts out a demon from an unruly girl. So if we accept the testimony of Acts, Paul must have believed that Satan did not only act in a general sense, but that the Evil One sent his minions to torment people in order to disrupt God's purpose.

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There are numerous commentaries that mention the "messenger of Satan" in 2 Corinthians 12:7, such as those found on BibleHub.

Here is a short sample:

Benson:

The messenger of Satan to buffet me — These words, being here put by way of apposition, must signify the same thing with the thorn in the flesh, and he must mean that he was buffeted by Satan, when, by the false apostles and ministers of Satan, (2 Corinthians 11:13; 2 Corinthians 11:15,) he was contemned and made the subject of their scorn, for this infirmity in his flesh. But it must be observed, that the original words here may be properly rendered, There was given me a thorn in the flesh, that the angel, or messenger, of Satan might buffet me. “Since, then, he calls the false apostles ministers of Satan, it is not to be wondered that he here styles them, or the chief of them, who thus reviled and contemned him for this infirmity, and laboured to take off the affections of the Corinthians from him, an angel of Satan buffeting him.” — Whitby. Lest I should be exalted, &c. — This clause is wanting in some MSS., and in the Vulgate version, being omitted, doubtless, because it occurs in the beginning of the verse. But the repetition of it here is not improper, as it is intended to draw the reader’s attention. The following observations of Baxter are worthy of every reader’s particular attention: “1st, Even the holiest Christians, after their most heavenly acquaintance, [their most intimate communion with God, and largest communications of light and grace from him,] are not out of danger of pride, or of being too much exalted. 2d, This spiritual pride is so dangerous a sin, that it is a mercy to be saved from it, even by bodily pain. 3d, God will hurt the bodies to save the souls, even of his dearest children. 4th, Satan, that intendeth hurt, is oft God’s instrument to do us good. 5th, Bodily pains are oft the messengers of Satan, and yet of God.”

Barnes:

The messenger of Satan - Among the Hebrews it was customary to attribute severe and painful diseases to Satan; compare Job 2:6-7; compare note on Luke 13:16. In the time of the Saviour malignant spirits are known to have taken possession of the body in numerous cases, and to have produced painful bodily diseases, and Paul here says that Satan was permitted to bring this calamity on him.

Vincent:

Messenger of Satan (ἄγγελος Σατᾶν)

The torment is thus personified. Messenger is the word commonly rendered angel in the New Testament, though sometimes used of human messengers, as Luke 7:24, Luke 7:27; Luke 9:52; James 2:25; see also on the angels of the churches, Revelation 1:20. Messenger and Satan are not to be taken in apposition - a messenger who was Satan - because Satan is never called ἄγγελος in the New Testament. Messenger is figurative, in the sense of agent. Satan is conceived in the New Testament as the originator of bodily evil. Thus, in the gospel narrative, demoniac possession is often accompanied with some form of disease. Compare Luke 13:16; Acts 10:38, and see on 1 Corinthians 5:5.

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The short of it is, "the messenger of Satan" is metaphorically Paul's "thorn in the flesh".

The following commentaries help us understand this better:

  • 2 Corinthians 12:7 Study Note NWT

    a thorn in the flesh: Paul here uses a metaphor to describe an ongoing affliction. A thorn embedded in the body would be a source of persistent pain. (The Greek word rendered “thorn” means “anything pointed,” such as a pointed stake, a splinter, or a thorn.) Paul does not specify whether the pain represented by this thorn was physical or emotional in nature. Some statements in Paul’s writings raise the possibility that Paul suffered from problems with his eyesight, something that would have made it difficult for him to travel, to write letters, and to carry out his ministry. (Ga 4:15; 6:11; see also Ac 23:1-5.) In this context, Paul was discussing the persistent attacks of his arrogant opposers, so he might be referring to the stress and anxiety those false teachers caused him. (See study note on 2Co 11:5.) Whatever the source of his pain, Paul calls it an angel of Satan, suggesting that Satan seeks to use any affliction, whether physical or emotional, to discourage a servant of God. Paul maintains a positive view of this trial, considering the “thorn” as a way to help him keep from becoming overly exalted, that is, a way to help him remain humble so that he can please God.​—Mt 23:12.

  • Benson Commentary

    The messenger of Satan to buffet me — These words, being here put by way of apposition, must signify the same thing with the thorn in the flesh, and he must mean that he was buffeted by Satan, when, by the false apostles and ministers of Satan, (2 Corinthians 11:13; 2 Corinthians 11:15,) he was contemned and made the subject of their scorn, for this infirmity in his flesh. But it must be observed, that the original words here may be properly rendered, There was given me a thorn in the flesh, that the angel, or messenger, of Satan might buffet me. “Since, then, he calls the false apostles ministers of Satan, it is not to be wondered that he here styles them, or the chief of them, who thus reviled and contemned him for this infirmity, and laboured to take off the affections of the Corinthians from him, an angel of Satan buffeting him.” — Whitby. [bold mine]

  • Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

    12:7-10 The apostle gives an account of the method God took to keep him humble, and to prevent his being lifted up above measure, on account of the visions and revelations he had. We are not told what this thorn in the flesh was, whether some great trouble, or some great temptation. But God often brings this good out of evil, that the reproaches of our enemies help to hide pride from us. If God loves us, he will keep us from being exalted above measure; and spiritual burdens are ordered to cure spiritual pride. This thorn in the flesh is said to be a messenger of Satan which he sent for evil; but God designed it, and overruled it for good. [bold mine]

  • Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

    there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me; many have been the thoughts and conjectures of men about what is here meant by the apostle. This ought to be allowed and taken for granted, that the thorn in the flesh, and the messenger of Satan, design one and the same thing; the former is a figurative expression, the latter a literal one, and explanative of the former. [bold mine]

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The Real Devil: A Biblical Exploration by Heaster, Duncan (ISBN: 9781906951016) extensively addresses the OP’s question and 2 Corinthians 12:7. Relevant section is online in full with open access at The Real Devil: A Biblical Exploration.

Here's a precis of comments and possible explanations put forward there:

“Satan” can be used to describe a man (e.g. Matthew 16:23) and the word for messenger/angel can also apply to men (e.g. Matthew 11:10; Luke 7:24; James 2:25). “Satan” may also refer to the religious system, and thus Paul sees the messenger of Satan as most likely a man acting on behalf of his persecutors.

“The messenger of Satan” is probably the same as the ministers of Satan referred to in 2 Corinthians 11:13-15, which is interpreted as those in the early church who were discrediting Paul and seeking to undermine Christianity.

There is the implication that one particular “messenger” of Satan organized the persecution of Paul - Alexander (2 Timothy 4:14-15; 1 Timothy 1: 20). The link between the messenger of Satan in 2 Corinthians 12:7 and those of 2 Corinthians 11:13-15 indicates that this person was a member of the ecclesia also.

Everywhere in Paul's writings, as well as in Revelation, 'satan' always has a definite article—apart from here. Likewise, this is the only time Paul uses the form satan rather than his usual satanas.

I have not checked for veracity, simply identifying the reference and resource—hope this helps.

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