I'm looking for scholarship on the phenomenon of the Bible treating official titles as though they were proper names. Examples of this seem to include: Pharaoh, Abimelekh, Rabshakeh (maybe Agag?), all of which seem to be royal titles, but are used without the "the" as though they are given names.
My go-to source for that information is the Jewish Encyclopedia. For example, Tartan.
There are many words in Scripture that are transliterated. Several of which have become names or titles. Someone has done some work in this area that can be found at The Problem of Untranslated Words in the Bible.