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Just a follow-up question spawned out of (Isa 16:4) Are the refugees Moabites Or Israelites? ( & contextual consequences of choosing each translation & conjunctional phrases involved)?

Isaiah 16:1-7

New American Standard Bible 1995

Prophecy of Moab’s Devastation

16 Send the tribute lamb to the ruler of the land, From [a]Sela by way of the wilderness to the mountain of the daughter of Zion. 2 Then, like [b]fleeing birds or scattered [c]nestlings, The daughters of Moab will be at the fords of the Arnon. 3 “[d]Give us advice, make a decision; [e]Cast your shadow like night [f]at high noon; Hide the outcasts, do not betray the fugitive. 4 “Let the [g]outcasts of Moab stay with you; Be a hiding place to them from the destroyer.” For the extortioner has come to an end, destruction has ceased, Oppressors have completely disappeared from the land. 5 A throne will even be established in lovingkindness, And a judge will sit on it in faithfulness in the tent of David; Moreover, he will seek justice And be prompt in righteousness.

6 We have heard of the pride of Moab, an excessive pride; Even of his arrogance, pride, and fury; His idle boasts are [h]false. 7 Therefore Moab will wail; everyone of Moab will wail. You will moan for the raisin cakes of Kir-hareseth As those who are utterly stricken.

Isaiah 16:1-7

New King James Version

Moab Destroyed

16 Send the lamb to the ruler of the land, From [a]Sela to the wilderness, To the mount of the daughter of Zion. 2 For it shall be as a wandering bird thrown out of the nest; So shall be the daughters of Moab at the fords of the Arnon.

3 “Take counsel, execute judgment; Make your shadow like the night in the middle of the day; Hide the outcasts, Do not betray him who escapes. 4 Let My outcasts dwell with you, O Moab; Be a shelter to them from the face of the [b]spoiler. For the extortioner is at an end, Devastation ceases, The oppressors are consumed out of the land. 5 In mercy the throne will be established; And One will sit on it in truth, in the tabernacle of David, Judging and seeking justice and hastening righteousness.”

6 We have heard of the pride of Moab— He is very proud— Of his haughtiness and his pride and his wrath; But his [c]lies shall not be so. 7 Therefore Moab shall wail for Moab; Everyone shall wail. For the foundations of Kir Hareseth you shall mourn; Surely they are stricken.

16:1-7 The Westminster Leningrad Codex 16 שִׁלְחוּ־כַ֥ר מֹשֵֽׁל־אֶ֖רֶץ מִסֶּ֣לַע מִדְבָּ֑רָה אֶל־הַ֖ר בַּת־צִיּֽוֹן׃

2 וְהָיָ֥ה כְעוֹף־נוֹדֵ֖ד קֵ֣ן מְשֻׁלָּ֑ח תִּֽהְיֶ֙ינָה֙ בְּנ֣וֹת מוֹאָ֔ב מַעְבָּרֹ֖ת לְאַרְנֽוֹן׃

3 ׳הָבִיאוּ׳ ״הָבִ֤יאִי״ עֵצָה֙ עֲשׂ֣וּ פְלִילָ֔ה שִׁ֧יתִי כַלַּ֛יִל צִלֵּ֖ךְ בְּת֣וֹךְ צָהֳרָ֑יִם סַתְּרִי֙ נִדָּחִ֔ים נֹדֵ֖ד אַל־תְּגַלִּֽי׃

4 יָג֤וּרוּ בָךְ֙ נִדָּחַ֔י מוֹאָ֛ב הֱוִי־סֵ֥תֶר לָ֖מוֹ מִפְּנֵ֣י שׁוֹדֵ֑ד כִּֽי־אָפֵ֤ס הַמֵּץ֙ כָּ֣לָה שֹׁ֔ד תַּ֥מּוּ רֹמֵ֖ס מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ׃

5 וְהוּכַ֤ן בַּחֶ֙סֶד֙ כִּסֵּ֔א וְיָשַׁ֥ב עָלָ֛יו בֶּאֱמֶ֖ת בְּאֹ֣הֶל דָּוִ֑ד שֹׁפֵ֛ט וְדֹרֵ֥שׁ מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּמְהִ֥ר צֶֽדֶק׃

6 שָׁמַ֥עְנוּ גְאוֹן־מוֹאָ֖ב גֵּ֣א מְאֹ֑ד גַּאֲוָת֧וֹ וּגְאוֹנ֛וֹ וְעֶבְרָת֖וֹ לֹא־כֵ֥ן בַּדָּֽיו׃ ס

7 לָכֵ֗ן יְיֵלִ֥יל מוֹאָ֛ב לְמוֹאָ֖ב כֻּלֹּ֣ה יְיֵלִ֑יל לַאֲשִׁישֵׁ֧י קִיר־חֲרֶ֛שֶׂת תֶּהְגּ֖וּ אַךְ־נְכָאִֽים׃

It's just came as an epiphany to me.

Are the Isaiah 16:2 's "daughters of Moab" reference the same as the "outcasts" in Isaiah 16:3 & Isaiah 16:4 ?

If yes then that would fortunately Disprove some of the confusing Exegesis in https://biblehub.com/commentaries/isaiah/16-4.htm like the following:

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Let mine outcasts dwell with thee,.... Not whom God had cast out, but who were the Lord's people, and whom he owns as such, though cast out by the enemy, or obliged to flee, and quit their country; let these be sojourners in thy land; let them continue awhile there; let them dwell privately and peaceably: Moab, be thou a covert to them from the face of the spoiler: that is, O king of Moab, or kingdom of Moab, as the Targum, hide and protect the Jews that shall flee to thee for shelter, from the face of the spoiler of their land and substance, Sennacherib king of Assyria;

Barnes' Notes on the Bible

Let mine outcasts - This may be understood as the language of Judea, or of God. 'Mine outcasts' may mean the exiles of Judea, or God may call them "his." The sense is essentially the same. It denotes those who were fugitives, wanderers, exiles from the land of Judea, and who took refuge in the land of Moab; and God claims for them protection.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(4) Let mine outcasts dwell with thee . . .—Better, let the outcasts of Moab dwell with thee. Judah, as being herself in safety, is once more appealed to to show mercy to the Moabite fugitives. The “oppressors” are, literally, they that trample under foot.

I say "fortunately disprove" because it would be strange, and tortuous circuitous logic:

  1. for Isaiah 16:2 to state that the "daughters of Moab" are fleeing like birds

  2. but then for commentaries like

  • a) Gill's Exposition and Barnes' Notes to state that Isaiah 16:3 & Isaiah 6:4 reference to outcasts are the Jews

  • b) or even Ellicott's strange interpretation that refers to the outcasts as being Moabites who take refuge in Judah

From my point of view, the "daughters of Moab" outcasts could be seen as prostitutes, widows, lower-class women in poverty, etc.

Essentially, would it be correct to state that Prophet Isaiah is telling the Moabites to just treat their own "daughters of Moab" outcasts in a compassionate, gracious & respectful manner?

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  • Good question that has been debated by commentators for many years. Numerous views exist.
    – Dottard
    Jul 6, 2023 at 10:27

1 Answer 1

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Yes, the daughters of Moab are identical with the other outcasts of Moab in this prophecy, except that the other outcasts include men as well as women. As I said in my answer to the related question, the context makes it clear that the outcasts are Moabites who have fled from the devastating battle described in (2 Kgs. 3:24-25). This is made clear by God's saying

for Moab my heart moans like a lyre, my inmost being for Kir-hareseth. (16:11 NABRE)

Kir-hareseth, a walled city of Moab, was completely destroyed in the battle in 2 Kgs. 3. It is mentioned only in 2 Kgs. 3 and Isaiah 16. God asks Judah to shelter the suffering Moabites, who are the cousins of both Israel and Judah. Indeed, the suffering of Moab is the general theme of the entire prophecy, which begins in the previous chapter with these lines:

 Oracle on Moab:
Laid waste in a night,
    Ar of Moab is destroyed;
Laid waste in a night,
    Kir of Moab is destroyed.
2 Daughter Dibon has gone up
    to the high places to weep;
Over Nebo and over Medeba
    Moab is wailing.
Every head is shaved,
    every beard sheared off.

Despite Moab's idolatry, God has compassion for them and urges Judah to take them in. However, the prophecy does not seem to be from Isaiah himself. It refers to events prior to Isaiah's birth, and please note the addendum in 16:13 "That is the word the Lord spoke against Moab in times past."

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