As an aside, the Latin for "left" is sinister.
In the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament, there is no consistent association of left with evil and right with good. In fact, both left and right are used in a variety of ways throughout the Hebrew Bible, with no clear preference for either direction
One example of this is in the book of Ecclesiastes 10:2, where it says, The heart of the wise inclines to the right, but the heart of the fool to the left. Here, the right is associated with wisdom and the left with foolishness, but this is just one instance of such an association and not a consistent theme throughout the Bible. A counter-example would be in Judges 3:15-21, where the left-handed Ehud is able to assassinate the Moabite king Eglon by using his left hand to draw the sword from his right side. In this case, the left hand is associated with skill and cunning, while the right hand is associated with weakness and vulnerability.
Another example is in Psalm 110:1, which says, The Lord said to my Lord, 'Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.' In this case, the right hand is associated with a position of power and authority.
A possible anthropological explanation is that the right hand is traditionally associated with strength and skill because most people are right-handed, and thus the right hand is often used for tasks that require precision and dexterity (in Latin, right is dexter). In contrast, the left hand is less commonly used and can be seen as weaker or less skillful. This association of right with strength and left with weakness may have contributed to the idea of right being associated with good and left with evil.
Another possible explanation is that the association of left with evil and right with good is related to the way we organize space and movement. Many cultures traditionally organize space and movement in terms of cardinal directions, with east, west, north, and south being the primary directions. In this system, the right side is associated with the east (the direction of the rising sun) and the left side with the west (the direction of the setting sun). The east is often associated with new beginnings, birth, and renewal, while the west is associated with death, endings, and decay. This could have contributed to the idea of right being associated with good and left with evil.
In Portuguese, the word for "left" - esquerda - seems to have come from the Latin exsurdus, which means awkward or unlucky.