According to Daniel chapter 1
1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, > Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it. 2 And the Lord delivered Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, along with some of the articles from the temple of God. These he carried off to the temple of his god in Babylonia and put in the treasure house of his god.
Daniel tells us that God gave Judah to Nebuchadnezzar.
God put Judah under the control of Nebuchadnezzar.
If Daniel had rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar he would have been rebelling against the authority God had placed over Judah and therefore rebelling against God's authority and standing against God's will.
Daniel never served Nebuchadnezzar. He always served God first. How to serve God in a pagan world is one of the major themes of Daniel.
As Paul said in Romans 13:1-7:
1 Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. 2 Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. 3 For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and you will be commended. 4 For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for rulers do not bear the sword for no reason. They are God’s servants, agents of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. 1 Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also as a matter of conscience.
6 This is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. 7 Give to everyone what you owe them: If you owe taxes, pay taxes; if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor.
Since Scripture does not say Daniel read Jeremiah we cannot assume that he did.