I am struck that these words/concepts are used frequently in the New Testament by speakers (Jesus and Paul among others, including Romans 4:20), who would have been (presumably) speaking/thinking in Aramaic/Hebrew, and approaching their theology from the framework of the Hebrew Bible.
Yet when I look for Semitic equivalents, I don't seem to be having much luck. (Searches on multiple versions of the English language Bible do not produce any results/synonyms/near equivalents to "unbelief" or "unbelieving," as far as I can see.)
The Lexham Research Lexicon of the Greek New Testament claims Hebrew equivalents include זָר (1), רָחָב 1 (1), but examining them in context does not seem to really bear that out.
Are there other Hebrew words/phrases I should be looking for?