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Psalm 148:5 YLT

They do praise the name of Jehovah, For He commanded, and they were created.

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The "who" are all that is listed in the first five verses of psalm 148. It includes everything from the heavens, everything that is in the Heights, all His messengers, all His Hosts. You can tell that they all belong to him by the word His.

Also included are the stars of light, the heavens of the heavens, The waters that are above the heavens. These are all to praise the name of Yahweh.

For He Himself Created them for his purpose, determined everything concerning them. He makes them stand for the future, for the eon.

He determined, appointed them, placed them, commanded them for his purpose. They were all under him, Under His authority.

It's interesting that the first time this word tsavah, Is used is in regard to God speaking to Adam and giving him a charge, An order so to speak. A command that Adam could eat freely from all the trees in the garden, except one. That one tree would cost their lives if they ate from it.

◄ 6680. tsavah ► Strong's Concordance tsavah: to lay charge (upon), give charge (to), command, order Original Word: צָוָה Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: tsavah Phonetic Spelling: (tsaw-vaw') Definition: to lay charge (upon), give charge (to), command, orde

So in essence everything above in the heavens are under God's authority, and under His command and they are all charged to be under Him. After all He created them for His purpose.

Additional thoughts:

The same word that God used to speak to Adam concerning the trees ( tsavah) is also the same word that was used to speak to everything in the heavenly realm after they had been created. (Their command was to praise the Lord). There had been instructions, orders, instructions, commands, (tsavah) after everything in the heavenly realms were created as well as after Adam was created. After being created everything was given a word by God. We now know that there were beings in the heavenly realm who rebelled against His (tsavah) as well Adam rebelled against the Lord by eating from the tree he was told not eat from. God creates beings and things for His purpose alone and then gave instructions to each after they were created.

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One of the distinguishing features of God/Jehovah is that He is able to command (and create) inanimate nature itself. Here are some examples:

  • Gen 1:3, 6, 9, 14, etc - God commands things to exist during creation week
  • Ps 33:6, 9 - By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, and all the stars by the breath of His mouth. ... For He spoke, and it came to be; He commanded, and it stood firm.
  • 1 Sam 12:18 - So Samuel called to the LORD, and on that day the LORD sent thunder and rain. As a result, all the people greatly feared the LORD and Samuel.
  • Jonah 4:8 - As the sun was rising, God commanded a scorching east wind, and the sun beat down on Jonah’s head so that he grew faint and wished to die, saying, “It is better for me to die than to live.”
  • Hos 2:21 - I [YHWH] will command the sky to send rain on the earth,
  • Matt 8:27 - And the men marveled, saying, "What kind of man [Jesus] is this, that even the winds and the sea obey Him [Jesus]?" See also Mark 4:41, Luke 8:25
  • Ps 148:5 - Let them praise the name of the LORD, for He gave the command and they were created.

Thus, Ps 148:5 is yet another example of when Jehovah command nature itself to either do something (to rain, or, not to rain, etc.) or to suddenly exist as at creation.

Therefore, the answer to the OP's question, "Who did Jehovah command?" The answer is: Nature itself as in many other places.

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God commanded without having any addressee, for before creation of the world there was nothing that could listen to Him or not listen to Him.

(Different when He commands earth to produce plants, for here He addresses, that is to say, activates the potential powers within the earth, like, for instance, a driver 'commands' potential powers within a car to get activated through turning a key).

Thus, “commanded” here implies, “making occur”, “affecting”, or “saying” in the sense not saying to somebody, but just expressing will in action.

Or one can hazard a conjuncture, that in a certain sense, God commands Himself, for when the Hypostases in Godhead, the Father, the Son and the H. Ghost - say “let us create” (Gen. 1:26), it can be said that They make a self-command.

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"They" is all that is described the entire Psalm 148, which points to everything created וְנִבְרָֽאוּ, the same verb as Genesis 1. "Let them praise" יְֽ֭הַֽלְלוּ is equivalent to how God commanded "Let there be" in Genesis. See also the Psalms:

        The heavens declare the glory of God, 
  and the sky above proclaims his handiwork. 
        2       Day to day pours out speech, 
  and night to night reveals knowledge. 
        3       There is no speech, nor are there words, 
  whose voice is not heard. 
                   (Psalm 19:1–3, ESV)


        Let everything that has breath praise the LORD! 
              Praise the LORD! 
                         (Ps 150:6, ESV)
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יְֽ֭הַֽלְלוּ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֑ה כִּ֤י ה֭וּא צִוָּ֣ה וְנִבְרָֽאוּ׃ Psalm. 148:5

Let them praise the name of the LORD: for he commanded, and they were created. Psalm. 148:5

אָֽנֹכִי֙ עָשִׂ֣יתִי אֶ֔רֶץ וְאָדָ֖ם עָלֶ֣יהָ בָרָ֑אתִי אֲנִ֗י יָדַי֙ נָט֣וּ שָׁמַ֔יִם וְכָל־צְבָאָ֖ם צִוֵּֽיתִי׃ Isaiah 45:12

I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded. Isaiah 45:12

YHWH commanded the hosts of heaven to praise his Name.

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