I recently found out that the middle voice in koine can cause a word to change its meaning completely for example a passive word in koine may mean "to rule" but the middle version of the same word may mean "to begin". Is this the same for other grammatical parts? Such as tenses, cases, ect? What other aspects of koine can completely change the meaning of a greek word in the Bible?
Here are two verses both containing the word αρχω one is in the middle and another in the active:
1 Peter 4:17 (WEB)
For the time has come for judgment to begin with the household of God. If it begins first with us, what will happen to those who don’t obey the Good News of God?
ὅτι ὁ καιρὸς τοῦ ἄρξασθαι τὸ κρίμα ἀπὸ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ θεοῦ· εἰ δὲ πρῶτον ἀφʼ ἡμῶν, τί τὸ τέλος τῶν ἀπειθούντων τῷ τοῦ θεοῦ εὐαγγελίῳ;
Mark 10:42 (WEB)
Jesus summoned them, and said to them, “You know that they who are recognized as rulers over the nations lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them.
καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος αὐτοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγει αὐτοῖς· Οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν τῶν ἐθνῶν κατακυριεύουσιν αὐτῶν καὶ οἱ μεγάλοι αὐτῶν κατεξουσιάζουσιν αὐτῶν.
Why is it the middle means one thing and the active means another? I read about the middle changing the meaning of the word in the article "Making Sense of the Middle Voice in Greek".
*Greek from: Holmes, M. W. (2011–2013). The Greek New Testament: SBL Edition. Lexham Press; Society of Biblical Literature.