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In Rom 3:25 hilasterion seems to have a connection to the lid or cover of the ark of the covenant and some reference mercy seat to this word as Strongs concordance #2435. Does this word have reference to the covering of sins from God's view? And does the different word hilasmos as found in 1 John 2:2 have any shade of meaning as to the covering of sins from God view? Would an illustration such as; "propitiation as used in 1 John 2:2 is like putting a doily over a water stain on a dresser to cover the stain from view" help to convey the understanding of hilasmos in this context?

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    Many have attempted to say that the 'hilasterion' is a 'mercy seat' but the word ilios does not mean 'mercy'. (That is eleos. Strong 1656) Ilios is mentioned twice in scripture and means (as used by Peter to Jesus) 'compose thyself'. Hilasterion is a matter of God being 'composed' in regard to the redeemed because of justification. Up-voted +1.
    – Nigel J
    Commented Dec 30, 2022 at 10:32

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There is strong indication that they are connected.

Theological dictionary of the New Testament links them together:

ἵλεως, ἱλάσκομαι, ἱλασμός, ἱλαστήριον -- Büchsel, F., & Herrmann, J. (1964–). ἵλεως, ἱλάσκομαι, ἱλασμός, ἱλαστήριον. In G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley, & G. Friedrich (Eds.), Theological dictionary of the New Testament (electronic ed., Vol. 3, p. 300). Eerdmans.

Also Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: based on semantic domains links them together:

40.12 ἱλασμός, οῦ m; ἱλαστήριον, ου n: the means by which sins are forgiven—‘the means of forgiveness, expiation.’ -- Louw, J. P., & Nida, E. A. (1996). In Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: based on semantic domains (electronic ed. of the 2nd edition., Vol. 1, p. 503). United Bible Societies.

BADG defines the differences the meaning. However, in these two verses the meaning is overlapping with Jesus as the instrumental means of atonement.

ἱλασμός, οῦ, ὁ (s. prec. and next entry) ① appeasement necessitated ... ② instrument for appeasing, sacrifice to atone, sin-offering -- Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., Bauer, W., & Gingrich, F. W. (2000). In A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., p. 474). University of Chicago Press.

ἱλαστήριον, ου, τό ... ① means of expiation,... ② place of propitiation -- Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., Bauer, W., & Gingrich, F. W. (2000). In A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., p. 474). University of Chicago Press.

Here is evaluating the words they translate in the Septuagint (LXX). Both are strongly connected to translating the Hebrew root כפר.

כִּפֶּר vb.Pi etc. denom. cover over (fig.), pacify, make propitiation; -- Brown, F., Driver, S. R., & Briggs, C. A. (1977). In Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (p. 497). Clarendon Press.

Figure 1. Use of ἱλασμός in LXX (generated with Logos Bible Software).

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Figure 2. Use of ἱλαστήριον in LXX.

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  • cool, what about the illustration?
    – ACME
    Commented Dec 29, 2022 at 23:29
  • Expanded answer more
    – Perry Webb
    Commented Dec 30, 2022 at 0:18
  • but, what about the doily/ lol
    – ACME
    Commented Dec 30, 2022 at 1:04

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