John 20:9 - They still did not understand from Scripture that Jesus
had to rise from the dead.
1 Cor 15:4 - that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day
according to the Scriptures,
Both these verses refer to Jesus' resurrection on the third day as fulfilling Scripture - but which Scripture?
There is not a single verse in the OT but a small collection of them, that, taken together tell the whole story. Note the following:
- Ps 16:10 - For You will not abandon my soul to Sheol, nor will You let Your Holy One see decay.
- Isa 53:10 - Yet it was the will of the LORD to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.
- Hos 6:2 - After two days He will revive us; on the third day He will raise us up, that we may live in His presence.
- Jonah 1:17 - And the LORD appointed a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.
- Matt 12:40 - For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
See also Isa 55:3, Ps 2:7, etc.
Thus, both Paul and Jesus clearly understood that Jesus was to rise from the dead on the third day.
Michael Brown writes in his Jewish Objections to Jesus, Vol. 3. Messianic Prophecy Objections. [Foonote page 352] …
“Based on this biblical data, the German biblical scholar Roland
Gradwohl argued that “ ‘three days’ is a stereotyped phrase used by
the Old Testament in describing a situation when something will be
fulfilled or completed within a useful and reasonable time.… The
‘third day’ is used to describe the moment when an event attains its
climax.” Another German scholar, K. Lehmann, wrote an entire volume on
the subject of resurrection on the third day, pointing to passages
such as Exodus 19:11, 16; Genesis 22:4; 2 Kings 20:5; Esther 5:1;
Hosea 6:2 as evidence that the third day was associated with special
divine activity, something that caught the attention of the ancient
rabbis as well. These insights, coupled with some key verses about
restoration, salvation, or rescue from death on the third day, give
Paul the right to say that the Messiah rose from the dead on the third
day according to the Scriptures. There would have been no day more
suitable than this, from the viewpoint of the Word of God.