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There are strong links between the sea beast of Revelation 13 and the beasts of Daniel 7:

  1. The beasts in Daniel 7 also come out of the sea (Dan 7:3).

  2. The sea beast has the same number of heads and horns that the four beasts of Daniel 7 have in total, namely, seven heads and ten horns. (The leopard has four heads (Dan 7:6) and the fourth beast has ten horns (Dan 7:7).)

  3. The sea beast has characteristics of three animals (a lion, a bear, and a leopard) and the first three beasts in Daniel 7 are explicitly like those same three animals (Dan 7:4-6).

  4. The dragon, which gave to the sea beast “his power and his throne and great authority” (13:2), is the fourth beast in Daniel 7. This statement is argued as follows:

    • In Revelation 13:2, the sea beast receives something from each of four beasts. Since three of them are explicitly three of the four beasts of Daniel 7, it follows that the fourth beast in 13:2 (the dragon) is the fourth beast of Daniel.

    • Daniel 7 does not say what type of animal the fourth beast is but describes it as “dreadful and terrifying and extremely strong” (Dan 7:7). “Dragon” is a good name for such a beast.

These links imply that the sea beast is part of or a continuation of the series of beasts in Daniel 7. What evidence exists that the beast from the sea in Revelation 13 is one of the four beasts or seven heads or ten (or 11) horns in Daniel 7?

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    It is a combination beast - the beast is a combination of the four in Dan 7.
    – Dottard
    Commented Nov 1, 2022 at 4:54
  • @Dottard The beast of Rev. 13 is the same as the fourth beast of Dan. 7. Both of these stand on the shoulders of the three prior beasts in a sense, having succeeded those beasts, but the fourth beast is definitely distinct from the prior beasts.
    – Biblasia
    Commented Nov 2, 2022 at 0:17
  • @Biblasia - that is one interpretation. There are (unfortunately) many others.
    – Dottard
    Commented Nov 2, 2022 at 0:48
  • Andries, I, have been following your posts on questions of eschatology. Your questions seem honest and thoughtful. Would you be willing to discuss some of these things one on one?
    – oldhermit
    Commented Nov 11, 2022 at 14:52

7 Answers 7

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Yes, there are strong links between the beasts of Daniel ch.7 and the sea beast of Revelation ch.13. You rightly wonder if the sea beast "is part of or a continuation of the series of beasts in Daniel 7." There is a need to build upon Daniel ch.7, using its information as a foundation for the fuller prophecy that takes us right to the Day of Judgment.

Rev. ch.13 reveals two global concepts with which the adversary deceives the whole world, just before Christ returns to lawfully recover his throne and dominion from that usurper. There is the beast out of the sea, and the beast out of the earth, but you only ask about the sea beast. You have already detailed many similarities, however, it is the differences between Daniel and the Revelation visions that are important. Daniel saw a series of four figurative beasts in succession. Revelation shows an amalgamation - where one beast out of the sea has leopard, bear, and lion characteristics. It is empowered by the dragon, so cannot be the dragon (as you point out). Now I will give points from a book dealing with this - selected points, as there are many pages of exposition.

"The beast of chapter 13 incorporates features from all the beasts successively revealed in Daniel chapter 7, besides having features of its own. Such a composite implies all those powers envisaged by Daniel depicted manifestations of that concept for the succeeding times then present. But the beast of Revelation 13 answers to time itself... This one beast evidently incorporated the separate and distinct four beasts seen by Daniel...

John sees one beast, though with seven heads. Of these 'heads', Daniel had envisioned four; although in his vision each of the four heads - the third being the exception in appearance - belonged to one or another of the four distinct beasts in succession. John perceives a deeper principle: the heads might have come up one after the other, they may have appeared diverse, but behind them all lay one single concept; the beast.

The vision in Revelation is that in which each of Daniel's allegorical beasts in turn become equally incorporated into the one great power lying deeply beneath every single historical materialization of its age-long strife for dominion...

[Rev. 17:10,11] But none saw the beast - the eighth - of whom these seven were but the visible successive manifestations... [John] knew that the seven 'heads', or 'kings', were connected to the one vast underlying body of power reaching over all time, and active throughout history...

The metaphorical beast represents the means by which the figurative dragon - which signifies the devil, or Satan - seeks to attain his end, that is, to grasp nd hold the throne of world dominion. This he does through what John depicts as a series of monstrous figures, the primary one of which is called the first beast...

The mind of the dragon is to gain the crown rights properly due to Christ. He will have the crowns. In the graphic imagery of Revelation, he will gain his end by the power of the beast, that is, the ten crowned horns. This indicates complete power, as do seven heads perfect intelligence, not in relation to heaven, but in relation to the earth. The beast [out of the sea] will yet again reign completely with the name of blasphemy... Mankind as a whole remains - and will remain - wholly oblivious to what actually takes place in the realm of that which is invisible, spiritual, and visionary. The Revelation of Jesus Christ, pp.307-328 John Metcalfe

In summary, I would express this as the sea beast of Revelation having been in existence even before Daniel's visions, and continuing till Rome, where Daniel's visions stopped. The Roman power suffered the deadly wound (at the cross) but has wondrously revived with multiple horns and diadems. Those equate with worldly (political) facets, allowed to continue 42 symbolic 'months', persecuting and overcoming the saints, even till now.

Much nearer the time of Christ's return, the second earth beast arises - appearing oh-so-religious and lamb-like, but it also blasphemes God by deceiving the world into false worship with signs, such as fire from heaven. It kills those who don't worship the image of the first beast. Those who do give that false, blasphemous worship, have the mark of the beast.

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  • Excellent and edifying. Appreciated. Up-voted +1.
    – Nigel J
    Commented Nov 8, 2022 at 17:55
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Yes, the beast of Revelation 13 is related to the beasts in Daniel.

1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. 2 And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority. (Revelation 13:1-2, KJV)

As noted in the question, the leopard, the lion, and the bear were each beasts which preceded the fourth beast in Daniel (see Daniel 7:3-6).

After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns. (Daniel 7:7, KJV).

Both the beast of Revelation 13 and the fourth beast of Daniel 7 is said to have "ten horns." A horn represents a power, or a king. As an example, consider the goat in the next chapter of Daniel.

Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven. (Daniel 8:8, KJV)

The "great horn" of the "he goat" aligns prophetically with Alexander the Great, upon whose demise his kingdom was divided among his four generals, which split the territory among them.

So in both Revelation 13 and in Daniel 7, the ten horns represent ten kings, or we might even say kingdoms. Daniel provides this explanation in the verses which follow.

I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things. (Daniel 7:8, KJV)

And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. (Daniel 7:24, KJV)

But heads also represent kings or kingdoms (think of a head of state). So it is interesting that in Revelation 13, the beast with the ten horns had seven heads. As Daniel 7:24 mentioned, three of those kings were to be subdued--leaving but seven of the original ten, hence the "seven heads."

As the beast of Revelation 13 represents the same power as the fourth beast of Daniel 7, we see the parallel in Revelation for the "mouth speaking great things" in Daniel.

And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months. (Revelation 13:5, KJV)

The additional detail provided for this beast (governmental) power in Revelation is sufficient to make its correct identification.

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The beast that was, is not and yet is. This is a nation that was then was not then became a nation again. A beast in symbolism is a nation and it’s leader. The harlot is the capitol city of this beast nation as she rides the beast.

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The iron legs of the statue in Daniel chapter 2, the fourth unnamed beast of Daniel 7, and the unnamed beast of Revelation 13 are all the same and represent the Roman Empire at different stages of its future history.

It is clear from Daniel chapter 2 that from the time of the Babylonian kingdom until the Second Coming of Christ and the establishment of the Kingdom of God/ World Government, there were only four Empires that affected Jerusalem during the time of Israel/Judea. (The Ottoman Empire was during the Gentile period [see Luke 21:24] when the Jews were not a nation there). These are the Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Greek, and the Roman Empires.

[Some say that it is the First Coming of Jesus that is depicted as the Stone that came during the Roman Empire. If this is true, then the 13th and 17th chapters of Revelation are irrelevant in 98-99 AD and also now].

There are some differences in the 4th beast from the time when Daniel saw it into the future in the 6th century BC to when John saw the same into the future in the 1st century AD; quite naturally because Rome was to progress in history into the future during that time.

(We need to keep in mind that both Daniel and John were looking into the future and seeing things in advance).

Now it has seven heads and 10 horns.

The seven heads are:

  • One Head of the Babylon area that was absorbed into the Roman Empire;

  • One Head of the Medo-Persian area absorbed;

  • Four Heads of the divided Greek empire that happened after the death of Alexander the Great (Daniel 8:8). These were Seleucus (over Syria), Lysimachus, Ptolemy (Egypt), and Cassander. All were absorbed into the Roman Empire.

  • One Head of the Roman Empire.

So, 1 + 1 + 4 + 1 = 7 (This is what Revelation 13:2 says).

The dragon is, of course, Satan who gives its power to this political kingdom. “And the great dragon was cast out, the old serpent (the one who deceived Eve in the Garden) being called devil, and, Satan” (Revelation 12:9).

The Roman Empire was very famous for its war-making ability. This is why “all the earth wondered after the beast” (Revelation 13:3) “saying, Who is like the beast; who is able to make war with it?” (verse 4).

When John saw the beast, one of its heads (this is the 7th Roman head) was wounded to death (verse 3). This is the fall of the western Roman Empire in Rome in 476 AD. (Historians mark the end of the Ancient History here). Rome continued only in the eastern Roman Empire centered in Byzantium.

This “deadly wound was healed” (verse 3) when Emperor Justinian from Byzantium recaptured Rome in 535 AD. This is known in history as ‘The Imperial Restoration’.

The 10 horns are to continue one after the other in the very seat of the Roman Empire, that is, Europe until the Second Coming of Christ.

(I would dare say that the 9th Horn was the Hitler-Mussolini Axis Power that culminated in the Second World War; the 8th Horn was Napoleon’s European Empire).

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Revelation's Sea Beast is Daniel's 11th horn.

Purpose

This article identifies the Sea Beast by analyzing Rev 13:1-2. It assumes that the previous article, which identifies the Dragon as the Roman Empire, has been read. That article contains a high-level overview of Daniel 7 and a general discussion of the seven-headed beasts of Revelation that provide context for the current article.

Revelation 13:1-2 - A brief overview

  1. And the dragon stood on the sand of the seashore. Then I (John) saw a beast coming up out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads, and on his horns were ten diadems, and on his heads were blasphemous names.

  2. And the beast which I saw was like a leopard, and his feet were like those of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. And the dragon gave him his power and his throne and great authority.

John first describes the horns and heads and then the beast’s body. Perhaps, as the beast rose from the sea, John first saw the horns, then the heads, and then the body.

"Diadems" is an untranslated Greek word, meaning crowns of rulers, in contrast to the victory crowns of the Olympics [stephanoi] as in, for example, "the crown (stephanos) of life" (Rev 2:10).

The beast received its “power ... throne and great authority” from the dragon (Rev 13:2). Another article identifies the Beast's throne.

Who stood on the sand?

According to some older translations, such as the King James, John himself stood on the sand of the seashore (Rev 13:1). However, the earliest manuscripts of Revelation read “he,” which would refer to the dragon mentioned in the previous verse (Rev 12:17). Therefore, in modern translations, the dragon stood on the sand. Such a translation also fits the storyline better:

In Revelation 13, the Dragon, the Sea Beast, and the Land Beast work together (e.g., Rev 13:4; 13:11-12). If it is the Dragon who stood on the sand of the seashore, then it tells us how the three came together:

In Revelation 12, after the Earth had come to the protection of the woman against the Dragon, the Dragon “went off to make war with the rest of her children” (Rev 12:17). It goes to the shore of the sea to secure reinforcements. From the vantage point of the “seashore,” it is first joined by the beast from the sea (Rev 13:1) and later by a beast from the earth (Rev 13:11).

Daniel's 11th Horn

The Sea Beast is Daniel's 11th horn. Using animals as symbols, Daniel 7 describes four successive 'worldwide' kingdoms. The fourth has been identified as the Roman Empire. (See - Daniel's Fourth Beast) For the following reasons, the Sea Beast is the 11th horn of Daniel 7:

(A) It is part of Daniel’s kingdoms.

The strong allusions to the animals of Daniel 7 in the description of the Sea Beast (Rev 13:1-2) indicate that it is part of the kingdoms in that chapter:

  1. Both the Sea Beast and the animals in Daniel 7 come up out of the sea (Dan 7:3).

  2. In the description of the Sea Beast (Rev 13:2), four animals are mentioned, and there are also four animals in Daniel 7.

  3. The Sea Beast has characteristics of three animals (a lion, a bear, and a leopard) (Rev 13:2) and these are explicitly the first three animals in Daniel 7 (Dan 7:4-6).

  4. The Sea Beast has the same number of heads and horns as the four animals of Daniel 7 have in total, namely, 7 heads and 10 horns (Rev 13:1). (See - Overview the Daniel 7 articles)

These allusions are perhaps the strongest allusions to the Old Testament one would find anywhere in the Book of Revelation. They are not a coincidence but imply that the Sea Beast is part of and provides additional information about Daniel's animals.

(B) It exists in the time of the horns.

As stated, the many horns that grow out of Daniel's fourth animal (Dan 7:7, 24) symbolize the kingdoms into which that animal (the Roman Empire) fragmented in the fifth and later centuries. They exist, therefore, after that fourth animal has disintegrated.

The previous article has concluded that the Dragon is the fourth kingdom in Daniel, namely, the Roman Empire. Since the Sea Beast receives its power and authority from the Dragon (Rev 13:2), it receives its power and authority from Daniel's fourth kingdom, meaning that the Sea Beast exists later than that fourth kingdom, namely, in the time on the horns growing out of it.

The Sea Beast has a body like a leopard, feet like a bear, and a mouth like a lion, These are the other three animals in Daniel 7. So, in fact, the Sea Beast inherited something from each of the four animals of Daniel 7. It must, therefore, exist AFTER them, namely, in the time of the horns.

(C) It has crowns on its horns.

While the Dragon has diadems (ruler crowns) on its heads, the sea beast has diadems on its horns (Rev 12:3; 13:1). The allusions to Daniel 7, as listed above, require us to interpret these crowns in terms of Daniel 7. In that chapter, there first are four animals with seven heads in total. After the last animal follows ten horns. Therefore:

The crowns on the heads of the Dragon imply that it exists during the time of the heads in Daniel 7. Since the seven heads are kingdoms and subdivisions of kingdoms, in means that the Dragon exists during the time of the four kingdoms. As already stated, the Dragon is Daniel's fourth kingdom.

The crowns on the horns of the Sea Beast mean that it exists during the time of the horns of Daniel 7.

(D) It continues Daniel’s fourth kingdom.

In Daniel 7, the 11th horn grows out of the fourth animal. This means that the 11th horn is a continuation of that fourth animal.

The same applies to the Sea Beast. The previous article identified the Dragon as Daniel’s fourth animal; the Roman Empire. Since the Dragon gives the Sea Beast its power and authority (Rev 13:2), the Sea Beast is also a continuation of the authority of Daniel’s fourth animal.

(E) Like the 11th horn, it is the Antichrist.

Both the 11th horn and the Sea Beast are God’s main enemy on earth and both exist until Christ returns:

In Daniel 7, the main character is the 11th horn. It grows to become larger than all the other horns (Dan 7:20, 24). It is God’s main enemy on Earth. It will become so important that a court will sit in heaven to judge between it and God’s people (Dan 7:26, 9-11, 14), and it will only be destroyed when Christ returns (Dan 7:26-27). The 11th horn, therefore, begins to exist when the Roman Empire fragments and continues to exist until Christ returns.

In Revelation, God’s main enemy is the Sea Beast. In the end-time crisis, the Mark of the Beast, which is the Sea Beast, is put on the foreheads of God’s enemies. This mark is the name of the Sea Beast or the number of his name (Rev 13:16-17).

Therefore, both the 11th horn and the Sea Beast: 

  • Exist during the end-time crisis.
  • Blaspheme God (Dan 7:8, 11, 20; Rev 13:5-6).
  • Overpower the saints (Dan 7:21, 25; Rev 13:7).
  • Persecute the saints for “a time, times, and half a time” (Dan 7:25; Rev 13:5). [As discussed elsewhere, the 42 months (Rev 13:5) is the same as the "time, times and a half." (“A time, times, and half a time” = 3½ times or years = 42 months.)]
  • Are destroyed when Christ returns (Dan 7:26-27, 11; Rev 19:11, 20).

These similarities identify them as one and the same entity.

Conclusions

For the reasons above, the Sea Beast and Daniel’s 11th horn symbolize the same world power. Revelation is built on the foundation of the book of Daniel and explains Daniel's symbols. The same applies to Daniel's Antichrist-horn. Revelation incorporates it into its visions but provides additional information about it. The Antichrist in Daniel is also the Antichrist in Revelation.

It is a Human Organization

The beast comes out of the sea (Rev 13:1). The sea is equivalent to "the earth" (Dan 7:2, 17), symbolizing the people of the world. In other words, the animals in Daniel are organizations of the people of the world. By implication, the sea in Revelation 13:1 also represents the peoples of the world and the Sea Beast is another organization of the people of the world.

It began to exist after the Roman Empire fragmented.

As stated, Daniel's fourth animal is the Roman Empire (See Daniel's animals). The 11 horns are the kingdoms into which the Roman Empire fragmented from the fifth century. The 11th was the last of the horns to come into existence. Since the Sea Beast is the 11th horn, it began to exist after the Roman Empire fragmented. Rev 13:1-2, describing the Sea Beast coming up out of the sea, is the beginning of its existence. 

It continues the Authority of the Roman Empire.

The Sea Beast is different from the other horns. In Revelation, the Dragon symbolizes the Roman Empire, and the Dragon gave the Sea Beast its power and great authority (Rev 13:2). The Sea Beast, therefore, is uniquely the continuation of the authority of the Roman Empire.

It explains Daniel’s fourth animal.

It was stated above that Revelations’ seven-headed beasts provide more information about the beasts in Daniel 7. We have now seen that the Dragon is Daniel’s fourth animal and that the Sea Beast is the 11th horn that grew out of Daniel’s fourth animal. So, Revelations’ seven-headed beasts provide additional information specifically about Daniel’s fourth beast.

This is only a preliminary identification of the beast based on the first two verses of Revelation 13. The beast is identified more specifically in one of the further articles in this series.

Heads and Horns

A common mistake by commentators is to assume that the seven heads and ten horns in Revelation are the same as the seven heads and ten horns in Daniel. They are not the same. For example:

Revelation's horns are not the same as Daniel's.

  • In Daniel, there really are 11 horns; not 10.
  • In Daniel, the 11th horn is the main character and the Antichrist. In Revelation, there is no such 11th horn.
  • In Daniel, the 11th horn, as it came up, uproots three of the others (Dan 7:8). In Revelation, the ten horns are united (Rev 17:12-13).
  • While the ten horns in Daniel 7 symbolize the kingdoms into which the Roman Empire fragmented, the ten horns in Revelation are limited to the end-time. They will, for example, make an end to the harlot (Rev 17:16), which symbolizes false religion or false Christianity.
  • The ten horns in Revelation are described in Revelation 17:12-17 and there is no similarity with the ten horns in Daniel 7.

Revelation's heads are not the same as Daniel's.

In Revelation, the sixth head exists after five "have fallen" (Rev 17:10). In Daniel, the sixth head exists at the same time as the previous three heads. To explain:

In Daniel, we first have the lion with one head, then the bear with one head, and then the leopard with four heads. The sixth head, therefore, is the fourth head of the leopard. But the four heads of the leopard symbolize the four parts of the Greek Empire, and they existed simultaneously. The last one does not exist after the others have fallen.

Revelation gives new meanings to Old images.

Revelation takes things from the Old Testament but gives them new meanings. For example, in the Old Testament, the ancient city of Babylon was built on the banks of the river Euphrates. In Revelation, Babylon becomes the name for the Harlot and the Euphrates becomes “the waters which you saw where the harlot sits,” symbolizing “peoples and multitudes and nations and tongues” (Rev 17:15).

In the same way, the heads and horns in Daniel receive different meanings in the book of Revelation:

In Daniel 7, the Seven Heads represented specific kingdoms and parts of kingdoms. The Ten Horns are the various nations into which the Roman Empire fragmented. See, the Fall of Rome.

In Revelation, the heads and horns have lost their original literal historic meaning and become symbols:

  • The Seven Heads symbolize the seven phases of history from the time of Babylon until Christ’s Return.

  • The Ten Horns symbolize the end-time coalition of the kingdoms of the world (Rev 17:12-13). Contrary to the typical artist's representation of these beasts, all ten horns are on the seventh and final head.

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After having read perhaps a dozen or more books on prophecy, I feel I’m more confused than before I read them. Each of them had some good points and some points that were ignored. I thought I’d post this so you, too, can be confused as well, but in this case, a more well-informed confusion.

We know from the scriptures that the heads of the beasts are empires and the horns are specific kings. The wings are likely satellite nations. Some have noticed that Revelation is not chronological in that

(a) a description of an historical event is described: Israel gives birth to Messiah, who is taken up to heaven despite the dragon’s effort to destroy the woman, Israel, and the Messiah, Jesus, with a flood, which is reminiscent of Daniel’s prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple with a flood.

(b) Many of the 21 judgments sound repetitive and might be different viewpoints of the same events.

(c) Genesis also “zooms in” on occasion, specifically creation of humans, which has often been dismissed as competing creation stories.

A Mish-Mash of Mascots In Daniel, why would Medo-Persia be characterized both as a ram with two horns and a bear raised up on one side? The bear is a traditional mascot of Russia. Why would Greece be characterized both as a unicorn with one horn (later four horns) and a leopard with four heads? Medo-Persia has never been associated with a bear, nor has Greece been associated with the leopard, but rather the dolphin. Egypt has been associated with a leopard. Babylon and Britain have been associated with the lion as a mascot.

Horns and Kings

“The ten horns which you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but they receive authority as kings with the beast for one hour.” - Revelation 17:12 NASB

Only one of the heads of the monster had horns—ten of them—followed by a little horn that displaced three, which leaves eight horns.

Do we have kings without kingdoms today? What’s a king without a kingdom, anyway?

How about something like the Wagner Group? It’s a Russian-supported shadowy trans-national network of companies with a significant military component. It’s registered in Argentina and is operating in at least 11 countries.

Or how about wealthy oligarchs?

The wealthiest man of 2023 according to Forbes is Bernard Arnault, who oversees the LVMH empire of 75 fashion and cosmetics brands, including Louis Vuitton and Sephora. He has a net worth of $211 billion US, which is more than the IMF 2024 forecast GDP of any one of 74% of the countries of the world—more than Hungary ($204 B US). Elon Musk is worth $180 billion US, more than Ukraine ($173 billion US), and Jeff Bezos is worth $114 billion US, more than Kenya ($113 billion US). And so on. The top ten wealthiest men in the world are worth about $1.2 trillion US, which is more than the GDP of Turkey. Maybe they could get together and simply buy Turkey for a year and keep the increase. Or maybe just Iran, which is on sale for only $366 billion US. According to Forbes, the billionaires In the USA alone ($4.5 trillion US) could get together and buy Germany (only $4.43 trillion US) for a year. I’m kidding, of course. Sort of.

These ten (or eight) kings without a kingdom are present on only one of the heads of the beast rising from the sea. And one of the heads, we don’t know which one, according to revelation had a fatal wound, but it was healed. But which head?

Statuary Collapse The Roman Republic (509 BCE–27 BCE) was followed by the Roman Empire first led by Caesar Augustus.

In Daniel 2, Nebuchadnezzar’s dream of a statue with five (!) subdivisions consisting of gold (Babylon), silver (Medo-Persia), bronze (Greek), iron (Roman Republic), iron mixed with clay (Roman Empire?) was hit by a stone that “was broken off without hands, and it struck the statue on its feet of iron and clay, and crushed them.” This stone “became a great mountain and filled the entire earth.”

This is the first coming of the Messiah, Jesus.

Many authors speculate that this final, podalic empire comprising iron and mud is a “revived” Roman Empire with perhaps ten new leaders. And maybe it grew another, eleventh, toe that pushed out three toes. But there’s no reason why the division between the legs and the feet couldn’t be chronologically continuous, connecting the Roman Republic with the Roman Empire that followed.

Beastly Bullying Note that the beasts coming up out of the sea (of peoples, perhaps Mediterranean) in Daniel 7 appear sequentially, but appear to remain in existence with each other:

Daniel said, “I was looking in my vision by night, and behold, the four winds of heaven were stirring up the great sea. And four great beasts were coming up from the sea, different from one another. – Daniel 7:2,3 NASB

After this I kept looking in the night visions, and behold, a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and extremely strong; and it had large iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and trampled down the remainder [“the rest” in the LXX] with its feet; and it was different from all the beasts that were before it, and it had ten horns. – Daniel 7:7 NASB

Speculatively, these could be an Anglo-American empire (colonialism), the Soviet/Russian empire (communism and crony capitalism), a Middle Eastern empire of four nations and four satellites (Islamic caliphate), and a fourth empire (global corporate conglomerate?). They all exist at the time of the end and are described in Revelation.

However, in Revelation 13:1-4 ESV, we read about a fusion of animals, but with seven heads and ten horns—like a combination of the four beasts in Daniel 7 into one, mimicking the great red dragon, satan:

And I saw a beast rising out of the sea, with ten horns and seven heads, with ten diadems on its horns and blasphemous names on its heads. And the beast that I saw was like a leopard; its feet were like a bear's, and its mouth was like a lion's mouth. And to it the dragon gave his power and his throne and great authority. One of its heads seemed to have a mortal wound, but its mortal wound was healed, and the whole earth marveled as they followed the beast. And they worshiped the dragon, for he had given his authority to the beast, and they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like the beast, and who can fight against it?”

In the ESV, it was “I” who stood on the seashore, but in the NASB, it’s assumed that it was the dragon. In the Greek, it seems to favor "I" (John).

The monster with ten horns in Daniel tramples the other beasts, but here they are fused together. Also, the dragon gives this new, hybrid beast his power and authority.

Speculation 1: Greece is the leopard body Medo-Persia is the bear’s feet, Babylon is the lion’s mouth.

Speculation 2: An Islamic Caliphate is the leopard body, Islamic southern Russia is the bear’s feet, and Islamic Britain is the lion’s mouth. The seven heads are seven nations working together.

As indicated in Daniel, the eagle’s wings are now absent, but there are possibly two other references to an eagle in Revelation:

Then I looked, and I heard an eagle flying in midheaven, saying with a loud voice, “Woe, woe, woe to those who live on the earth, because of the remaining blasts of the trumpet of the three angels who are about to sound!” - Revelation 8:13 NASB

But the two wings of the great eagle were given to the woman, so that she could fly into the wilderness to her place, where she was nourished for a time, times, and half a time, away from the presence of the serpent. - Revelation 12:14 NASB

Could the “great eagle” be the USA in the end times? Note that the primary combatants of the Ezekiel 38 invasion of Israel consist primarily of Turkey, Iran, and Southern Russia. It specifically does not include Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and the ships of Tarshish, which was specifically Cardiz, Spain, but was often meant to include all remote sea traffic:

“The ships of Tarshish were the carriers for your merchandise . . .”

  • Ezekiel 27:25a NASB

And the nations adjacent to Israel, Egypt and Jordan, are also not mentioned, neither are what are now Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq.

Hope this was informative without being rigidly committed. We'll probably all turn out to be wrong in the end. But I expect we'll make adjustments as developments unfold.

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A common view is that the beasts of Revelation 13 are Behemoth (the beast from the land) and Leviathan (the beast from the sea), the creatures described in Job 40 and 41.

Behemoth is described by God in placid terms in Job 40. It is powerful and exacts tribute. It hides among the reeds, meaning it hides its true intent. In Revelation 13 it is described as resembling a lamb but speaking like a dragon. That may mean that it retains the trappings of Judeo-Christian tradition but has sunk into apostasy and idolatry. It maintains a facade of law and order, but those laws are increasingly unjust.

Leviathan, on the other hand, is described as chaotic. It has no shred of allegiance to Christian tradition. In ancient religious writing, the sea is the source of chaos, death and destruction. It also stands for people in general. Thus anything that arises from the sea arises from the sea of unsaved mankind.

Many theologians associate the fourth beast of Daniel's sequence with Rome. If you consider all the empires with overseas empires that sprang from Rome (including America, its grandchild), the count is ten, and they collectively conquered the whole world, with the exception of a handful of nations, but even those nations were not unscathed. Those empires are Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, France, England, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy and America. Part of Denmark was arguably a vassal state of Rome; Denmark was part of the later Holy Roman Empire. Russia and Greece are excluded as they have their own place in prophecy, Greece being the third beast. Other empires to arise within Europe did not acquire overseas territories. The world's uncolonized lands are (according to one Internet list): Liberia, Ethiopia, Japan, Thailand, Bhutan, Iran, Nepal, Tonga, China, and possibly North Korea, South Korea and Mongolia. However, part of China was "leased" by England, Japan was nuked and occupied by the USA and had a new form of government imposed upon it. The US also occupied South Korea for a long time, Liberia was settled by free slaves from America and Italy briefly held Ethiopia. So pretty much the whole world was conquered by those ten horns from the beast.

Curiously, if you go through the prophets, you often find sets of beasts listed. The lists keep changing. By comparing them all, it is clear that there is a master list.

  • Daniel 7: lion, bear, leopard, terrible beast.
  • Revelation 13: leopard, bear, lion
  • Jeremiah 4:7, 5:6: lion, wolf, leopard
  • Lamentations 3:10-13: bear, lion, arrows
  • Hosea 13:7-8: lion, leopard, bear
  • Isaiah 11:6-7: wolf, leopard, lion, bear, lion again (excluding the meek lamb, yearling, cow, ox)
  • Habakkuk 1:8: leopards, wolves, eagle
  • Zephaniah 3:3: lions, wolves
  • Ezekiel 22:18: copper, tin, iron, lead, silver. (Note that bronze is an alloy of copper and tin and lead is similar in weight to gold. Similar metallic list to Daniel, reordered.)
  • Ezekiel 22:25-27: lion, wolves

Habakkuk's eagle is interesting, as it ties to Daniel 7:4, where "the first was a lion, and it had the wings of an eagle". Then the "wings were torn off". Daniel 7:7 associates the metal iron with the fourth beast. (I imagine that some will see in this prophecy a reference to America. England is symbolized by the Lion and America through its revolution was torn off from that Empire, and has the symbol of an eagle.)

I go to great lengths in the chapter "Timeless?" of my book Peace, like Solomon Never Knew to use textual clues (like references to morning and evening) to supply a time sequence to the various beasts and corresponding metals. The conclusion is that the "terrible beast" is synonymous with most prophetic references to wolves, and Rome's creation myth was that Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome, were suckled by wolves. Thus the prophets used a subterfuge of synonyms to conceal the fact that many prophecies were against Rome.

Hopefully these scriptures can serve as a sourcebook for further study of the beasts.

I am currently researching a theory that the book of Job has the master list of empires. Each "negative speech" plus God's chapters on Behemoth and Leviathan match an empire, in chronological order. A few prophetic references to metals (bronze for Greece and iron for Rome) pop up, but not the beasts. This is the correspondence:

  1. Antediluvian Anarchy: Job 1. Satan's first attack is chaotic, with bands of thieves, a tornado and lightning strikes. It matches the time before the flood, a time of anarchy.
  2. Nimrod's Babel: Job 2. Job's health suffers, matching the decline in lifespans following the flood. Nimrod is described in Genesis as the first "mighty man" in history, founder of the first human empire.
  3. Egypt: Job 5-6. This chapter of Job has many references to the Exodus plagues.
  4. Israel/Judah: Job 8.
  5. Assyria: Job 11.
  6. Babylon: Job 15.
  7. Medo-Persia (Achaemenid Dynasty): Job 18. Has clues pointing to the death of Cambyses II.
  8. Greece: Job 20. Describes the death of Alexander the Great.
  9. Rome: Job 22.
  10. Islamic Empires: Job 25.
  11. Behemoth: Job 40.
  12. Leviathan: Job 41.

In Peace, like Solomon Never Knew, I devote an entire chapter to Job 20. It has about twenty prophetic details that tie it to the setting, symptoms, death and burial of Alexander the Great. I am now digging up comparisons that tie those chapters to the other empires.

The upshot of all this is that you need to find the right scaffolding, then attach prophecies from all over the Bible to that scaffolding so that the many details reinforce one another. Finding a non-contradictory solution that incorporates all the evidence is not easy.

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